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WASSELING

THEY DON'T HAVE HALLOWEEN IN ENGLAND. THEY HAVE WASSELING NEAR
CHRISTMAS.IT'S A DAY IN THE CHRISTMAS SEASON SET ASIDE FOR KIDS TO
GO AND COLLECT CANDY, PRESENTS, ETC.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; ROSEVILLE

James Callow Keyword(s): BEGGING GIFT-GIVING ; WASSAIL WASSAILING

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- October 31 Halloween
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.

Date learned: 11-00-1974

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POLISH CHRISTMAS CUSTOM

AT CHRISTMAS, THE FATHER SNEAKS OUTSIDE AND PROCEEDS TO KNOCK ON
THE DOORS AND WINDOWS. THE MOTHER WARNS THE CHILDREN THAT THE WOLF
IS COMING. THE FATHER ENTERS THE HOUSE THROUGH THE BACK DOOR. HE
HAS A BLANKET OVER HIS HEAD AND A "TURON" IN HIS HANDS. A "TURON"
IS THE HEAD OF A WOLF ON A STICK WITH FLAPPING JAWS CONTROLLED BY
A ROPE. THE FATHER CHASES THE KIDS AROUND THE ROOM THEN SNEAKS
BACK OUTSIDE.

Submitter comment: MOST OFTEN THE "TURON" IS HOMEMADE AND PASSED ON FROM FATHER TO
ELDEST SON. THIS WAS DONE BY MY GRANDFATHER IN DETROIT BUT MY
FATHER DOES NOT OBSERVE THE CUSTOM ANYMORE.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

James Callow Keyword(s): MASK

Subject headings: Favorites
Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Dramatic
DRAMA -- Secular
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
ART CRAFT ARCHITECTURE -- Mask

Date learned: 10-10-1974

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LIVE CRIB

EVERY CHRISTMAS SEASON SINCE ABOUT 1965, MEMBERS OF ST. PAUL'S
CHURCH IN MASSILLON, OHIO RE-ENACT THE FIRST CHRISTMAS. FOR ONE WEEK
BEFORE THE FEAST, AND LASTING THREE TO FOUR NIGHTS, THE ROLES OF
MARY, JOSEPH, AND THE SHEPHERDS ARE PORTRAYED BY CHURCH MEMBERS, WHO
DRESS IN THE COSTUME OF THE PERIOD, MADE BY WOMEN VOLUNTEERS
BELONGING TO THE CHURCH.
THE SETTING IS MOST REALISTIC. A STABLE, BUILT BY THE MEN OF THE
PARISH, IS ERECTED OUTSIDE ON THE CHURCH GROUNDS. A STRAW-FILLED
MANGER IS INSIDE, CONTAINING A BABY-DOLL WHO REPRESENTS JESUS.
(PEOPLE SAY THAT A LIVE CHILD IS NOT USED BECAUSE OF THE COLD WEATHER
OF DECEMBER NIGHTS.) ANIMALS, USUALLY A COW AND SOME SHEEP AND PIGS,
ARE LENT BY MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH LIVING ON FARMS, AND STAY IN THE
STABLE DAY AND NIGHT DURING THE PERIOD IN WHICH THE PLAYS ARE
PERFORMED.
NO ADMISSION IS CHARGED, AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC USUALLY STOPS BY
AND VIEWS IT. FOR MANY PEOPLE OF MASSILLON OF ALL FAITHS, GOING TO
SEE THE LIVE CRIB HAS BECOME AS MUCH A TRADITION AS THE PERFORMANCE.

Submitter comment: SINCE 1970, ANOTHER LOCAL CHURCH, THE FAITH MEMORIAL BAPTIST OF
REEDURBAN (ABOUT FIVE MILES AWAY FROM ST. PAUL'S), HAS PUT ON A
SIMILAR PRODUCTION
WITH STABLE, CLOTHES, ANIMALS, ETC., EXCEPT THAT THEY
HAVE THE CHARACTERS ACTING OUT A PLAY USING THE BIBLE STORY OF THE
NATIVITY AS A SCRIPT, WHEREAS ST. PAUL'S HAS NO ORAL PRESENTATION.
FAITH MEMORIAL DRAWS EVEN BIGGER CROWDS THAN THE ST. PAUL CRIB,
POSSIBLY BECAUSE OF ITS LOCATION--ON THE MAIN ROAD ONE BLOCK AWAY
FROM A BIG SHOPPING MALL.

Where learned: OHIO ; MASSILLON

James Callow Keyword(s): ANIMAL

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
ART CRAFT ARCHITECTURE -- Structure for dance, game, pastime, sport, drama, etc.

Date learned: 10-00-1973

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A CUSTOM FOR THE CHILDREN AT CHRISTMAS IS TO PUT MONEY IN PIEROGI
(POLISH FOOD).

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
Food Drink -- Food
BELIEF -- Prayer

Date learned: 11-00-1972

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CHRISTMAS

IN ITALY THE FATHER OF THE HOUSEHOLD WOULD GIVE EACH CHILD A PENNY
AFTER THE CHILD RECITED A POEM OR STORY IN THANKSGIVING OF THE PAST
YEAR.

Submitter comment:

INFORMANT LEARNED THIS FROM AN ITALIAN FRIEND WHO ACTUALLY PARTICIPATED IN THIS CEREMONY AS A CHILD IN ITALY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; GROSSE POINTE

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.

Date learned: 09-25-1972

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THE CHRISTMAS TREE IS NEVER PUT UP BEFORE CHRISTMAS EVE AND
NEVER TAKEN DOWN BEFORE JANUARY 6.

Submitter comment:

THIS IS A POLISH CUSTOM.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; WARREN

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- January 6 Twelfth Day Epiphany
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- F122
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas tree

Date learned: 10-00-1965

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A CARROT FOR A REINDEER

THE YOUNGER CHILDREN IN HER FAMILY HANG A STRING FROM THE DOOR AT
CHRISTMAS TIME WITH A CARROT AT THE END FOR THE REINDEER TO EAT.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; HOLDEN HALL ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): FOOD FOR ANIMALS

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Straw

Date learned: 10-00-1967

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CHRISTMAS - CUSTOM

THE POLISH EACH YEAR AT XMAS TAKE A BASKET
OF FOOD TO BE BLESSED BY THE PRIEST.

Data entry tech comment:

Informant and collector share the same surname.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT ; TOLD AT COLLECTORS HOME

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Church

Date learned: 04-00-1970

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RELIGIOUS

BEFORE CHRISTMAS, SIX BOYS CARRY THE MANGER. THREE OF THEM DRESS UP
AS THE THREE KINGS. ONE CARRIES A LIGHTED STAR AND TWO CARRY
STATUES OF MARY AND JOSEPH. THEY SING CAROLS AND ARE REWARDED WITH
SWEETS AND APPLES.

Submitter comment: IN POLAND, DURING THE CHRISTMAS SEASON, THE BOYS MARCH FROM
HOUSE TO HOUSE.

Where learned: DETROIT

Subject headings: 686 Thirds / Thrice / Three / Triple
PROSE NARRATIVE -- B370
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Songs, caroling

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STAJENKA

EVERY CHRISTMAS IT IS CUSTOMARY FOR POLISH FAMILIES TO DISPLAY
FIGURINES OF CHRIST'S NATIVITY UNDER THEIR CHRISTMAS TREES. BESIDES
STATUES OF JOSEPH, MARY, AND THE INFANT JESUS, SHEPHERDS, SHEEP,
WISE MEN, AND CAMELS ARE PLACED UNDER THE TREE. OFTEN A WHOLE
VILLAGE, INCLUDING HOUSES, FARMS, ANIMALS, AND PEOPLE, IS
CONSTRUCTED. THE NATIVITY DISPLAY IS REFERRED TO AS THE STAJENKA.

Submitter comment: DISPLAYING THE STAJENKA UNDER THE CHRISTMAS TREE IS A COMMON
PRACTICE FOR THE INFORMANT.

Where learned: DETROIT

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Manger scenes

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AT CHRISTMAS TIME, ALONG WITH A CHRISTMAS CARD, EACH FAMILY RECIEVES
A PAPER THIN WAFER CALLED " UPACKI" (OO PWUT KEY) IT REPRESENTS HOME
AND FAMILY TOGETHRENESS AT THE TIME OF CHRISTS BIRTH.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; HAWKS

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Gifts, gift giving at Christmas
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Greetings, wishes, prayers, cards

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CHRISTMAS FOOD TRADITION

AT CHRISTMAS TIME, EVERYONE PARTICIPATES IN AN EGG FIGHT TO FIND
THE YEAR'S CHAMPION (COLORED EGGS AND LEMON PIES ARE MADE TWO DAYS
IN ADVANCE).

Submitter comment: ITEM WAS LEARNED IN MINNESOTA BUT COLLECTED IN DETROIT.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT ; BOTSFORD GRADE SCHOOL ; CLARENCEVILLE DISTRICT

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Special Object or Implement
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
Food Drink -- Animal product Egg

Date learned: 11-00-1982

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KRIS KRINGLE

ABOUT A MONTH BEFORE CHRISTMAS, THE WHOLE FAMILY PICKS EACH OTHERS'
NAMES OUT OF A HAT. THE PERSON THAT YOU PICK, YOU MUST BE EXTRA
NICE TO. YOU ARE THAT PERSON'S KRIS KRINGLE. ON CHRISTMAS EVE,
EVERYONE TRIES TO GUESS WHO HIS KRIS KRINGLE WAS.

Submitter comment: SINCE AT MY BOYFRIEND'S HOUSE MANY TIMES PEOPLE WOULD GUESS THE
WRONG PERSON, THEY NOW TELL EACH OTHER ON CHRISTMAS EVE TO AVOID
HURT FEELINGS.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; EAST DETROIT

Subject headings: Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.

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RUSSIAN CHRISTMAS CUSTOMS

WHEN I WAS STILL IN SCHOOL WE HAD TWO WEEKS VACATION
FOR CHRISTMAS. GOVERNMENT OFFICES CLOSED FOR A WHOLE
WEEK. ON THE FIRST DAY OF CHRISTMAS ALL THE CHILDREN
AND GRANDCHILDREN VISITED THEIR GRANDPARENTS' HOUSE.
MOST OF THE PEOPLE DIDN'T MOVE MUCH. MANY OF THEM WERE
BORN, LIVED AND DIED IN THE SAME VILLAGE OR CITY. THEY
OFTEN HAD EIGHT TO FOURTEEN CHILDREN. IT WAS NOT
UNUSUAL TO HAVE TWENTY TO THIRTY PEOPLE IN THE HOUSE
AT THE SAME TIME. THE TABLES WERE LADEN WITH FOOD
FOR A WHOLE WEEK. ON THE SECOND DAY OF CHRISTMAS THE
MEN WENT FROM HOUSE TO HOUSE OF RELATIONS AND FRIENDS
FOR A DRINK OF VODKA AND SOME FOOD. THE WOMEN STAYED
HOME TO GREET THE GUESTS. ON THE THIRD AND FOURTH DAYS
OF CHRISTMAS PEOPLE WENT TO SEE THEIR BEST FRIENDS.
THEY HAD DINNER AND DRINKS AND ENDED UP SINGING AND
DANCING RUSSIAN FOLK DANCES. WE HAD NO CARS SO EVERYONE
GOT HOME SAFELY. ON THE FIFTH AND SIXTH DAYS OF
CHRISTMAS EVERYONE RESTED.

Submitter comment: THESE CUSTUMS TOOK PLACE BEFORE THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; Farmington Hills

James Callow Keyword(s): VISITING

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.

Date learned: 12-00-1983

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CHRISTMAS IN ITALY

THIS IS THE WAY MRS. POPP CELEBRATED CHRISTMAS
UNTIL SHE WAS SEVEN YEARS OLD, WHEN SHE AND HER FAMILY
MOVED TO AMERICA, LEAVING THE TRADITIONS IN ITALY.
CHRISTMAS IN ITALY STARTS IN EARLY FALL AND ENDS ON JANUARY 6
WITH THE ARRIVAL OF LA BAFANA, SANTA'S ASSISTANT.
IN THE EARLY FALL THE YOUNG CHILDREN WOULD GO HOUSE TO
HOUSE BEGGING FOR WOOD, PREPARING FOR THE MOST EXCITING
PART OF THE CHRISTMAS HOLIDAY, THE GIANT BONFIRE. EVERY YEAR
THE BIGGEST THICKEST LOG, CALLED THE YULE LOG WAS SAVED
THROUGHOUT THE YEAR FOR GOOD LUCK. INSTEAD OF A CHRISTMAS
TREE ITALIANS SET UP A PRESEPIO, AN ELABORATE MODEL OF
BETHLEHEM. THE CRADLE WAS LEFT EMPTY UNTIL CHRISTMAS EVE
WHEN A SPECIAL CHILD WAS GIVEN THE HONOR OF PLACING THE
SMALL STATUE IN THE CRADLE. AT THE CENONE (GREAT BIG DINNER)
SEVEN DIFFERENT KINDS OF FISH ARE SERVED. BEFORE THE FAMILY
GOES TO BED THEY LEAVE CAKES AND CANDY ON THE TABLE AS AN OPEN
INVITATION FOR MARY AND HER SMALL CHILD TO SPEND THE NIGHT.
THIS WAS THEIR WAY OF TELLING MARY THAT THEY NEVER WANTED HER
TO LOOK FOR A PLACE TO LAY HER CHILD, SHE WAS ALWAYS WELCOME
IN THEIR HOMES.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Subject headings: 686 Seven / Sevenths / Several
Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- January 6 Twelfth Day Epiphany
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Manger scenes
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Autumn Fall Harvest Thanksgiving

Date learned: 02-00-1984

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IN OBERAMERGAUE, GERMANY DURING CHRISTMAS TIME, THEY
HOLD A PASSION PLAY, DEPICTING THE BIRTH OF OUR LORD.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; GERMANY ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): BIRTH OF OUR LORD=CHRISTMAS. ; SOME CONTRADICTION HERE--PASSION PLAY=CRUCIFIXION.

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.

Date learned: 12-00-1967

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GERMAN CHRISTMAS CUSTOM

IN GERMANY, THREE BOYS DRESS UP LIKE THE THREE KINGS
AND THEY GO TO FARMHOUSES AND SING CHRISTMAS SONGS.
ONE BOY HAS A LONG STICK WITH A STAR ON THE TOP OF IT.
THEY COLLECT APPLES, NUTS, ETC.

Submitter comment: SHE LEARNED IT BECAUSE SHE LIVED IN GERMANY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; GERMANY ; DETROIT

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Songs, caroling
Food Drink -- Food

Date learned: 02-07-1967

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EVERY CHRISTMAS THE SYMONS FAMILY STRING POPCORN AND
CRANBERRIES ON THEIR CHRISTMAS TREE ALONG WITH THE
OTHER ORNAMENTS.

Submitter comment: INFORMANT LEARNED IT FROM HER PARENTS.

Where learned: HOME

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas tree

Date learned: 11-00-1967

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HOLIDAY CUSTOM

AT HOLIDAY TIME ALL THE MEN OF THE FAMILY WENT TO
THE HOMES OF ALL CLOSE FRIENDS. RELATIVES, TO EXTEND
THEIR GREETINGS. AND DRINK AND CONDIMENTS WERE
ALWAYS SERVED TO THESE MEN.

Submitter comment: FAMILY DID THIS.

James Callow comment: APPARENTLY COLLECTOR MEANS CHRISTMAS TIME.
CONDIMENTS SPELLED CONDIGNMENTS

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.

Date learned: 04-15-1967

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IN OBERAMERGAUE, GERMANY DURING CHRISTMAS TIME, THEY
HOLD A PASSION PLAY, DEPICTING THE BIRTH OF OUR LORD.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; GERMANY ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): BIRTH OF OUR LORD=CHRISTMAS. ; SOME CONTRADICTION HERE--PASSION PLAY=CRUCIFIXION.

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.

Date learned: 12-00-1967

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