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UKRAINIAN TRADITIONAL DRESS

THE BASIC COSTUME INCLUDED A BLOUSE WITH FANCY COLORFUL
EMBROIDERY, A COLORED SKIRT, A VEST, BEADS, BOOTS, AND A
COLORFUL HEADPIECE. THE COLOR OF EACH PART, THE MATERIAL,
AND THE DESIGN VARIED WITH EACH SECTION OF UKRAINE. BROWNS
AND ORANGES WERE COMMON TO THE HUTSULS WHILE OTHERS USED
FLOWERY PATTERNS AND REDS. THE BLOUSE, USUALLY EMBROIDERED
ON THE FRONT AND THE LONG SLEEVES, SOMETIMES HAD A VEST.
RED BEADS WERE A COMMON ORNAMENT AND USUALLY OF MANY STRANDS.
THE SKIRT, OFTEN OF A HEAVY MATERIAL, SOMETIMES COVERED AN
UNDERSKIRT OF OFF WHITE WITH AN EDGING. THE BOOTS WERE RED
OR BLACK. THE HEADPIECE, A WREATH PLACED ON THE HEAD,
WAS ADORNED WITH COLORFUL ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS AND LONG
COLORFUL RIBBONS HANGING FROM THE BACK.

Submitter comment: MANY UKRAINIAN GIRLS STILL HAVE THEIR OWN NATIVE COSTUME.
THEY ARE WORN FOR FORMAL PERFORMANCES OF NATIVE DANCES.
VARIOUS MODIFICATIONS ARE USED FOR CHOIRS AND CONCERTS.
MEN AND WOMEN WEAR EMBROIDERED SHIRTS AND BLOUSES WITH
BLACK PANTS AND LONG BLACK SKIRTS.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: ART CRAFT ARCHITECTURE -- Dress

Date learned: 00001950S

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BELIEF

IF YOU SPILL SALT, BE SURE TO PICK SOME OF IT UP BETWEEN THUMB
AND FIRST FINGER AND THROW IT ACROSS THE RIGHT SHOULDER. IT GOES
IN THE DEVIL'S EYES. HE WILL NOT TEMPT YOU TO DO ANYTHING WRONG.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

James Callow Keyword(s): POSITION DIRECTION

Subject headings: BELIEF -- Devil Demon
BELIEF -- Mineral

Date learned: 03-11-1972

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UKRAINIAN FOLK DANCE

THE TRADITIONAL FOLK DANCE FOR UKRAINIANS VARIES WITH
THE AREA FROM WHICH YOUR ANCESTORS CAME. MOST FOLK DANCES
ARE DONE IN CIRCULAR PATTERNS AND LINES. THE MUSIC IS 2/4
TIME AND GIVES INSIGHT TO THE LIFE STYLE. SOME DANCES ARE
PERFORMED BY GIRLS ONLY WHILE OTHERS ARE FOR BOYS. ONE OF
THE MOST POPULAR DANCES, THE HOPAK, IS PERFORMED BY HIGH
JUMPS AND LOW BENDS AND SOMETIMES WITH SWORDS. MOST THEMES
ARE ROMANTIC OR MILITARISTIC AND PERFORMED IN FULL COLOR
COSTUMES.

Submitter comment: MANY PARISHES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
CONTINUE TO MAKE UKRAINIAN DANCE CLASSES AVAILABLE TO THEIR
PARISHONERS.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Form Grouping Movement
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Marriage Dancing

Date learned: 00001950S

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TRADITIONAL UKRAINIAN WISH

FOR VARIOUS HAPPY OCCASIONS UKRAINIANS SING A TRADITIONAL
GREETING CALLED "MNOHAYA LEETA" OR "GOD GRANT YOU MANY
YEARS." IN THE GREETING, WISHES ARE EXTENDED FOR MANY
HAPPY YEARS, FREE OF ALL ILLS AND FOR ETERNAL SALVATION.
THEY BEG GOD TO GRANT THESE PETITIONS TO THE HONORED
INDIVIDUAL. THIS GREETING IS SUNG FOR BIRTHDAYS, FEAST
DAYS, ANNIVERSARIES, MARRIAGES, VOYAGES, PROMOTIONS,
AND ANY OTHER JOYOUS OCCASION.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Social reunion
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Typical Elements of a Festive Pattern
BELIEF -- Prayer
SPEECH -- Formula

Date learned: 00001950S

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DAYS OF THE WEEK

VARIOUS BELIEFS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE DAYS OF THE WEEK.
MONDAY IS CONSIDERED A WORK DAY. THEREFORE, IF NEW YEAR'S
DAY FALLS ON A MONDAY, THE ENTIRE YEAR WILL BE HARD.
TUESDAY IS CONSIDERED A HAPPY DAY. WEDNESDAY AND FRIDAY
ARE FAST DAYS COMMEMORATING GOOD FRIDAY AND THE WEDNESDAYS
OF LENT. THURSDAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH GOOD LUCK AND IS THE
DAY ASSOCIATED WITH MATCHMAKING. IF YOU ARE BORN ON THIS
DAY YOU WILL BE RICH. SATURDAY IS A DAY OF REMEMBRANCE OF
THE DEAD.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Keyword(s): SUPERSTITION

Subject headings: Observation
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- January 1 New Year's
BELIEF -- Marriage
BELIEF -- Death Funeral Burial
BELIEF -- Measure of time Year
BELIEF -- Measure of time WeekDayHour
BELIEF -- Good luck Time (year, season, week, hour, etc.) Occasion Event

Date learned: 00001950S

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DAYS OF THE WEEK

THE BYZANTINE UKRAINIAN CHURCH COMMEMORATES A DIFFERENT
GROUP OR PERSON EACH DAY OF THE WEEK. MONDAY IS DEDICATED
TO THE HOLY ANGELS. TUESDAY IS ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST DAY.
WEDNESDAY AND FRIDAY ARE DEDICATED TO THE LORD'S CROSS.
ST. NICHOLAS AND THE APOSTLES ARE HONORED ON THURSDAY.
SATURDAY IS IN HONOR OF ALL THE SAINTS. SUNDAY IS IN HONOR
OF THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST. THE VARIOUS MASS PARTS
CHANGE TO HONOR THE VARYING GROUPS EACH DAY.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Measure of time Week Day Hour
BELIEF -- Religious hero

Date learned: 00001950S

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EPIPHANY-JANUARY 6

FOR UKRAINIANS VARIOUS EVENTS ARE COMMEMORATED ON THIS
DAY WHICH IS ALSO CALLED "THEOPHANY" OR MANIFESTATION. IT
CELEBRATES THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST AND THEREFORE WATER IS
BLESSED IN THE CHURCHES. THE BLESSING FOLLOWS THE MASS
WHEN THE PRIEST SUBMERGES THREE SETS OF THREE LIGHTED
CANDLES. A CRUCIFIX IS ALSO MOVED THROUGH THE WATER IN
THE FORM OF A CROSS. THE PEOPLE FILL THEIR JARS WITH HOLY
WATER TO BRING HOME. EACH PERSON DRINKS SOME HOLY WATER
AND SOME IS POURED INTO THE HOLY WATER FONTS. IN THE WEEKS
FOLLOWING EPIPHANY, THE PASTOR VISITS THE HOMES OF HIS
PARISHONERS TO BLESS THEM. THE HOLY WATER IS ALSO USED FOR
BLESSING FARMS, CATTLE, AND CROPS. ON SPECIAL FEAST DAYS,
THE CHURCH ALSO BLESSES FRUIT, FLOWERS, AND FOOD. IT IS ALSO
USED IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE SACRAMENTS.

Submitter comment: TO UKRAINIANS ALL BODIES OF WATER SUCH AS LAKES, RIVERS,AND
PONDS WERE CONSIDERED HOLY. THE BLESSING OF WATER IN THE
UKRAINE TOOK PLACE AT THE EDGE OF THE RIVER NOT IN THE
PARISH CHURCH.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Keyword(s): THREE

Subject headings: 686 Thirds / Thrice / Three / Triple
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- January 6 Twelfth Day Epiphany
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Typical Elements of a Festive Pattern
BELIEF -- Water
BELIEF -- Magic Book
BELIEF -- Prayer
BELIEF -- Sign Geometric figure Cross and its various modifications

Date learned: 00001950S

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FEAST OF ST. GEORGE-APRIL 23 BYZANTINE RITE

THE USUAL PICTURE OF ST. GEORGE HAS HIM PICTURED ON A
HORSE, WITH A SPEAR IN HIS HAND. HE IS KILLING A DRAGON
WHICH IS SYMBOLIC OF PAGANISM. THE DEW OF THE FEAST DAY
IS CONSIDERED MIRACULOUS AND IF GATHERED BEFORE SUNRISE,
IT SHOULD HEAL ANY DISEASE OF THE EYES. ANOTHER COMMON
EVENT FOR THE DAY IS A PROCESSION AROUND THE FIELD WITH
RELIGIOUS SERVICES. THE PRAYERS ARE PETITIONS FOR A GOOD
HARVEST. ALSO ON THIS DAY, YOUNG GIRLS TRY TO PREDICT THEIR
MARRIAGE DATE. THEY ASK THE CUCKOO HOW LONG BEFORE THEY WILL
MARRY. IF THE CUCKOO STOPS COOING AT THE END OF THE QUESTION
SHE WILL MARRY BEFORE THE END OF THE YEAR. IF IT BEGINS
COOING, THE NUMBER OF TIMES IT SINGS WILL BE THE NUMBER OF
YEARS BEFORE HER MARRIAGE.

Submitter comment: SOME OF THESE CUSTOMS ARE BEGINNING TO DIMINISH IN THE
UNITED STATES.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Keyword(s): ANIMALS

Subject headings: Observation
Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- April 23
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Typical Elements of a Festive Pattern
BELIEF -- Bird
BELIEF -- Marriage
BELIEF -- Measure of time Year
BELIEF -- Measure of time WeekDayHour
BELIEF -- Prayer
BELIEF -- Number Counting beliefs
BELIEF -- Remedy
BELIEF -- Use of Object

Date learned: 00001950S

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PALM SUNDAY GREETING

FOR UKRAINIANS, THE PUSSY WILLOWS REPLACE THE PALM AND THE
DAY IS CALLED FLOWERY SUNDAY. AFTER THE BLESSING AND THE
DISTRIBUTION OF THE PUSSY WILLOWS, THE PEOPLE GENTLY TAP
ONE ANOTHER WITH THE PUSSY WILLOW. THEY SAY THIS VERY
TRADITIONAL PHRASE. I AM NOT HITTING YOU, THE PUSSY WILLOW
IS HITTING YOU, A WEEK FROM TODAY IS EASTER.
THE PUSSY WILLOWS ARE THEN TAKEN HOME. THEY ARE USED AS A
SACRAMENTAL AND PLACED BEHIND HOLY PICTURES ON A WALL OR
ARRANGED IN A VASE ON A TABLE OR DRESSER.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Keyword(s): SWITCHING

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Ash Wednesday
SPEECH -- Gesture

Date learned: 00001950S

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FEAST OF THE EXALTATION OF THE HOLY CROSS-SEPTEMBER 14

UKRAINIANS OF THE BYZANTINE RITE VENERATE THE CROSS IN A
SPECIAL MANNER ON THIS DAY. FLOWERS, USUALLY RED ROSES OR
CARNATIONS ARE ARRANGED ON A WIRE BACKING. THE CROSS IS THEN
PLACED ON TOP OF THE FLORAL ARRANGEMENT WITH A CHALICE PATEN
UNDER IT. A RED MATERIAL, SOMETIMES A PART OF THE PRIEST'S
VESTMENT, IS TIED AROUND THE BOTTOM OF THE CROSS AND THE STEMS
OF THE FLOWERS. IT IS CARRIED AROUND THE ALTAR BY THE PRIEST
BEFORE THE FIRST MASS OF THE DAY. THEN IT IS PLACED ON A
PILLOW ON THE TETRAPOD, A SMALL TABLE IN THE FRONT CENTER OF
THE CHURCH. THE CROSS AND THE FLORAL ARRANGEMENT UNDER IT
REMAIN THERE FOR A WEEK FOR VENERATION BY THE FAITHFUL. THE
CROSS IS KISSED UPON ENTERING AND EXITING THE CHURCH. AFTER
EACH SERVICE THE CONGREGATION SINGS THREE TIMES THE PHRASE
O LORD, WE ADORE THY CROSS AND GLORIFY THY HOLY RESURRECTION.
AFTER EACH SINGING, A PROFOUND BOW IS MADE BY THE PEOPLE.
MANY OF OUR OLDER WOMEN CONSIDER THE DEAD FLOWERS TO BE A
SACRAMENTAL AND ASK TO TAKE THEM HOME WHEN THE ARRANGEMENT
IS TAKEN APART. SOME KEEP THEM ON DRESSERS, IN PRAYER BOOKS,
AND IN THEIR BIBLES.

Submitter comment: THE UKRAINIANS ALSO VENERATE THE CROSS IN A SIMILAR MANNER
ON THE THIRD SUNDAY OF LENT.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Keyword(s): FLOWERS

Subject headings: 663 Lent
686 Thirds / Thrice / Three / Triple
Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- September 14
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Measure of time Week Day Hour
BELIEF -- Plant
SPEECH -- Religious

Date learned: 00001950S

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UKRAINIAN WHEAT DISH-KUTIA

A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF THE CHRISTMAS EVE SUPPER IS THE
KUTIA. THE WHEAT FOR THE KUTIA IS SOAKED OVERNIGHT AND THE
NEXT DAY IT IS BOILED UNTIL SOFT. THE COOK ADDS OTHER
INGREDIENTS WHICH VARY ACCORDING TO THE REGIONS. SOME ADD
ONLY HONEY WHICH HAS BEEN DILUTED INTO A WATERY SYRUP. OTHERS
ADD DILUTED HONEY, POPPY SEED, AND CHOPPED NUTS. BESIDES THE
VARYING INGREDIENTS, THE PLACE IT OCCUPIES IN THE MEAL ALSO
VARIES. IN SOME UKRAINIAN HOMES, THE KUTIA IS THE FIRST FOOD
EATEN BEGINNING IN ORDER FROM THE OLDEST MEMBER OF THE FAMILY
TO THE YOUNGEST. USUALLY ONLY A SPOONFUL IS TAKEN FROM THE
BOWL IN THE MIDDLE OF THE TABLE. OTHER UKRAINIANS USE THE
KUTIA AT THE END OF THE MEAL AS A DESSERT. IT WOULD HAVE
POPPY SEED AND NUTS WHEN USED AS A DESSERT. OFTEN IT WOULD
BE EATEN WITH HOMEMADE BAKED GOODS SUCH AS HONEY CAKE CALLED
MEDEVNUK OR POPPY SEED ROLL CALLED MAKEVNUK.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: 686 Properties attributed to specific numbers or numerals individually.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve
Food Drink -- Typical menus for the various meals For meal hours, see F574.84. Special or festive meals
Food Drink -- Pastry Sweet Dessert
BELIEF -- Number Numbers used for ordering, organizing, or explaining a hierarchy: the oldest son should receive the inheritance.

Date learned: 00001950S

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UKRAINIAN BLESSING OF FRUIT

THE FEAST OF THE TRANSFIGURATION ON AUGUST 6 IS CELEBRATED
IN THE BYZANTINE CHURCH WITH THE BLESSING OF FRUIT WHICH IS
AN ACT OF THANKSGIVING FOR THE PLENTIFUL HARVEST. FOLLOWING
THE MASS, THE PRIEST READS SPECIAL PRAYERS ASKING FOR A
BLESSING ON THOSE WHO PARTAKE OF THE FRUIT. HE THEN SPRINKLES
THE FRUIT WITH HOLY WATER. THE CUSTOM OF BRINGING THE FRUIT
VARIES WITH THE PARISHES. IN SOME PARISHES, THE PARISH BUYS
BUSHELS OF FRUIT AND FOLLOWING THE BLESSING IT IS DISTRIBUTED
TO THE PARISHONERS. IN OTHER PARISHES, EACH FAMILY BRINGS
A BASKET OR DISH OF FRUIT WHICH IS TAKEN HOME FOLLOWING THE
BLESSING.

Submitter comment: THE BLESSED FRUIT IS THE FIRST FOOD EATEN WHEN THE FAMILY
RETURNS HOME.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: 686 Properties attributed to specific numbers or numerals individually.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- August 6
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Typical Elements of a Festive Pattern
BELIEF -- Prayer

Date learned: 00001950S

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SIGN OF THE CROSS

MANY UKRAINIAN WOMEN OFTEN USE THE SIGN OF THE CROSS IN
CONNECTION WITH FOOD. THEY MAKE THE SIGN OVER THE LOAVES
OF BREAD BEFORE PUTTING THEM INTO THE OVEN FOR BAKING.
MANY WOMEN ALSO MAKE THE SIGN ON THE BOTTOM OF A LOAF OF
BREAD BEFORE BEGINNING TO SLICE IT. THE UKRAINIANS DEPENDED
ON BREAD AS A MAIN PART OF THEIR DAILY FOOD. SINCE UKRAINE
WAS THE BREADBASKET OF EUROPE, THEIR GRATITUDE AND THEIR
ACCEPTANCE OF THIS PLENTY WAS EXPRESSED THROUGH THIS SIMPLE
RELIGIOUS GESTURE OF ACKNOWLEDGING THE UNIVERSAL PROVIDER.

Submitter comment: I HAVE NEVER SEEN MY MOTHER SLICE A LOAF OF BREAD WITHOUT
MAKING A SIGN OF THE CROSS OVER THE BOTTOM OF THE LOAF.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: Favorites
BELIEF -- Sign Geometric figure Cross and its various modifications
SPEECH -- Gesture
SPEECH -- Religious

Date learned: 00001950S

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UKRAINIAN WEDDING BREAD - KOROVAI

IN PLACE OF THE WEDDING CAKE AT THE RECEPTION, A LARGE
CIRCULAR BREAD IS BAKED AND PLACED ON THE BRIDAL TABLE.
THE TOP OF THE BREAD IS FANCILY BRAIDED. BIRDS MADE FROM
THE SAME SWEET BREAD DOUGH ARE ATTACHED TO THE TOP AND
SIDES OF THE BREAD. THIS SPECIAL BREAD CALLED KOROVAI IS
DISTRIBUTED TO THE GUESTS. SOME OF THE GUESTS WHO RECEIVE
A BIRD, KEEP THEM AS A REMEMBRANCE OF A SPECIAL DAY.
EVEN THOUGH THE WEDDING BREAD IS STILL BEING MADE, IT DOES
NOT ALWAYS REPLACE THE WEDDING CAKE ANY MORE.

Submitter comment: MY SISTER WAS MAID OF HONOR AT A DETROIT WEDDING IN 1976.
THE BRIDE'S MOTHER HAD BAKED THE WEDDING BREAD AND MY
SISTER STILL HAS A BIRD FROM THAT WEDDING BREAD.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Marriage Reception
Food Drink -- Typical menus for the various meals For meal hours, see F574.84. Special or festive meals

Date learned: 00001950S

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A MIXTURE OF OIL OF WINTERGREEN (2 DROPS) AND HARD
APPLE CIDER (GLASSFUL) MAY BE TAKEN INTERNALLY TO
ACT AS A CURE FOR ARTHRITIS OR RHEUMATISM.

Where learned: ROCHESTER ; NEW YORK, ASSUMED

Subject headings: BELIEF -- Plant
BELIEF -- Method of Curing

Date learned: 03-00-1969

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UKRAINIAN WEDDING RECEPTION EVENT

FOLLOWING THE MEAL AT THE RECEPTION, A RELATIVE OF THE
BRIDE, USUALLY AN AUNT OR HER GODMOTHER, SITS WITH A PLATE
ON HER LAP. THE GUESTS WISHING TO DANCE WITH THE BRIDE, TRY
TO BREAK THE PLATE BY THROWING A COIN AT IT. IF THEY BREAK
THE PLATE THEY CAN DANCE WITH THE BRIDE. IF THE PLATE DOES
NOT BREAK, THEY CAN TRY AGAIN. EACH BROKEN PLATE MEANS
GOOD LUCK FOR THE BRIDE.

Submitter comment: THIS CEREMONY TOOK PLACE WHEN MY MOTHER WAS MARRIED IN
ROCHESTER, NEW YORK IN 1939.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Marriage
BELIEF -- Good luck Eating utensils
BELIEF -- Good luck Crucial moment of life

Date learned: 00001950S

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PENTECOST CUSTOM - BYZANTINE

EACH YEAR ON THE SATURDAY BEFORE PENTECOST SUNDAY, SMALL
BRANCHES WITH GREEN LEAVES WERE CHOPPED FROM BUSHES AND TREES.
THESE GREEN BRANCHES WERE FASTENED TO THE OUTSIDE OF HOMES
ESPECIALLY AROUND DOORWAYS. MANY YEARS AGO PEOPLE EVEN
DECORATED THE INSIDE OF CHURCHES WITH THESE GREEN BOUGHS.
THIS PRACTICE WAS DRAWN FROM THE NAME GREEN SUNDAY WHICH IS
ANOTHER NAME FOR PENTECOST.

Submitter comment: PENTECOST IS THE ONLY TIME WHEN THE PRIEST MAY WEAR GREEN
VESTMENTS IN THE BYZANTINE RITE.

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Pentecost
BELIEF -- Sign Color

Date learned: 00001950S

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BLESSED MOTHER BELIEF

A WHISTLING WOMAN YOUNG OR OLD IS INSULTING THE BLESSED
MOTHER OF GOD.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: NEW YORK ; ROCHESTER

Keyword(s): Feminine ; INSULT ; Ladylike ; Whistle ; Whistling

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Belief C860.432
BELIEF -- Religious hero
BELIEF -- Product or activity of man or animal
BELIEF -- Product or activity of man or animal

Date learned: 03-11-1972

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NUN'S VEIL

MARY JO WAS TOLD BY HER FOURTH GRADE TEACHER SISTER
ANGELITA, S. S. J. THAT SHE COULDN'T TOUCH A SISTER'S
VEIL BECAUSE IT IS BLESSED.

Where learned: OAKLAND UNIVERSITY STUDENT ; MICHIGAN, ASSUMED ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: PROSE NARRATIVE -- B439

Date learned: NOT GIVEN

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NUN'S VEIL

MARY JO WAS TOLD BY HER FOURTH GRADE TEACHER SISTER
ANGELITA, S. S. J. THAT SHE COULDN'T TOUCH A SISTER'S
VEIL BECAUSE IT IS BLESSED.

Where learned: OAKLAND UNIVERSITY STUDENT ; MICHIGAN, ASSUMED ; ROCHESTER

Subject headings: PROSE NARRATIVE -- B439

Date learned: NOT GIVEN

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