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Problem Solver

When one has a problem which seems too difficult to solve, simply
write it down on a small piece of paper, put it under a pillow, and
sleep on it. In the morning, an answer will be found.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Subject headings: Favorites
BELIEF -- Product or activity of man or animal
BELIEF -- Measure of time Sleeping

Date learned: 00001975CA

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I Love You

The Latvian words for "I love you" are "Es tevi milu," and are
spoken in appropriate situations, or used as the closing of
letters.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Subject headings: SPEECH -- Formula

Date learned: 00001975CA

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Latvian Bread

At every Latvian function, a certain bread is prepared and eaten
by all of the participants. It comes from their home country, and is
basically a rye-sourdough type bread.

Submitter comment: The bread is very good, especially with ham and cheese.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Subject headings: Food Drink -- Typical menus for the various meals For meal hours, see F574.84. Special or festive meals
Food Drink -- Pastry Sweet Dessert Bread, rolls, etc.

Date learned: 00001971ca

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Parties

Latvian parties, be it for a birthday, graduation, retirement, or
holiday, will often be turned into pig roasts with traditional
Latvian foods, music, dancing, and plenty of beer.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Typical Elements of a Festive Pattern

Date learned: 00001971ca

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Latvian School

When Latvian school children reach the early teenage years, they
must attend Latvian school. There, they are taught the history,
traditions, music, and language of their country.

Submitter comment: Guy attended this school, and learned a great deal about the
birthplace of his father.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): EDUCATION

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- School

Date learned: 00001985ca

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Latvian Ring

In a Latvian family, each family member is given a Latvian ring.
The ring is similar for males and females, and can be crafted of
silver or gold. It is made up of separate strands of gold or silver
wound together by a braid-like strand. It symbolizes the strength of
the Latvian people when they bind together.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): JEWELRY

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Street Trip Relations between relatives, friends, host and guest Social class Rank
ART CRAFT ARCHITECTURE -- Metal Stone Bone Gold Silver Copper
ART CRAFT ARCHITECTURE -- Finished Product

Date learned: 00001971ca

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St. Patrick's Day

Every St. Patrick's Day, my mother cooks corned beef and cabbage
for dinner. For dessert, she usually makes a cake with green
frosting.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): COLOR

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- March 17 Feast of St. Patrick
Food Drink -- Typical menus for the various meals For meal hours, see F574.84. Special or festive meals

Date learned: 00001971ca

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Strange Cure

As a small child, I was a frequent sufferer of nose bleeds. While
staying with my grandmother, my nose began to bleed, and she
suggested a strange cure she had learned as a child. She placed a
large spoon in the freezer, and when it was cold, she placed it on
the back of my neck.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): Silverware

Subject headings: BELIEF -- Mineral

Date learned: 00001980CA

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Stain Remover

As a high school student, I was forever getting ink on some part
of my clothing. My mother informed me that if put on a fairly new ink
stain, hair spray would remove it completely.

Submitter comment: This form of stain removal is still used by my family and
friends.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): HOUSEHOLD HINT

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Home

Date learned: 00001985ca

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Emergency Phone Calls

When I was a child, I always wore Penny Loafers. My mother would
put dimes in the penny slots of my shoes, just so that I would always
have twenty cents to make a phone call in case of an emergency.

Submitter comment: The dimes I was forced to wear helped me out of a difficult
situation more than once.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): Telephone call, price of

Subject headings: 686 First / Once / One / Newness
Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Measure of quality Monetary system Money Wealth
ART CRAFT ARCHITECTURE -- Dress HandsFeet
BELIEF -- Number P686.1.20

Date learned: 00001980CA

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Make a Wish

When driving over railroad tracks, pick up your feet and touch a
screw. While you are in that position, make a wish. If the tracks are
cleared, and you have remained with your feet up and in contact with
the screw, your wish will come true.

Submitter comment: I practiced this in high school with friends.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Street Trip Relations between relatives, friends, host and guest Social class Rank
BELIEF -- Prayer
SPEECH -- Gesture

Date learned: 00001985ca

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Color Tag (Game)

The game is played by a group of more than four children, in a
large, outside area. One child is selected to be "It," and begins the
game by counting to ten. The other children run away, and
"It" attempts to catch them. If a child is about to be caught, he or
she can sit down and yell the name of a color. Any colors can be
used, but they cannot be repeated. "It" must either catch a child
before he or she sits down and says a color, or a color must be
repeated in order for "It" to become a player.

Submitter comment: I played this game as a small child with my school friends.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Racing Chasing Fighting

Date learned: 00001975CA

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BACK WHEN MY GREAT UNCLE WAS GROWING UP, ON SUNDAYS
WHEN THEY SAT DOWN TO EAT DINNER AND UNEXPECTED COMPANY
SHOWED UP, HIS MOTHER WOULD SAY TO THE CHILDREN NOT TO
EAT ANY OF THE MEAT SO THE COMPANY COULD HAVE SOME. AS THE
MEAT DISH WAS PLACED AROUND THE DINNER TABLE, THE CHILDREN
WOULD PASS ON THE MEAT. AT THE END OF DINNER WHEN HIS
MOTHER GOT UP TO GET THE DESSERT, SHE WOULD SAY, "ALL
THE CHILDREN WHO DIDN'T EAT ANY MEAT FOR DINNER COULDN'T
HAVE ANY DESERT."

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): UNFAIR PRACTICE

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Street Trip Relations between relatives, friends, host and guest Social class Rank
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Measure of time Eating For menu, see N222.

Date learned: 00001970S

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THE BUZZARDS HAVE RETURNED TO HINCKLEY OHIO YEARLY ON
MARCH 15 FOR MANY YEARS, WHEN FROZEN CARCASSES FROM A
CHRISTMAS EVE COMMUNITY HUNT BEGAN DEFROSTING AS SPRING
APPROACHED. PEOPLE WEARING BUZZARDS COSTUMES WAIT FOR
THE BUZZARDS WHO ROOST ON ROCKY LEDGES IN A NEARBY
LAKE. THIS USUALLY MARKS THE END OF THE WINTER SEASON.
THE CARCASSES ARE THERE EVERY YEAR.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): BIRDS ; DATE ; SEASONS

Subject headings: PROSE NARRATIVE -- Bird
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- March 15
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Measure of time Winter

Date learned: 00001980S

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LOGGER'S LINGO

AGUE - MALARIAL FEVER. MOST EARLY PIONEERS AND LOGGERS
ENDURED THE "FEVER 'N' AGUE'" CAUSED BY THE BITES OF
PESKY MOSQUITOES THAT BRED IN SWAMPY AREAS. QUININE WAS
GENERALLY TAKEN AS A REMEDY.

AX (BRANDING) - SEE "MARKING HAMMER."
BOOM - AN ENCLOSURE DESIGNED TO HOLD BACK, ENCIRCLE,
OR "FENCE IN" FLOATING LOGS.

BAG-BOOM - A GIANT SIZE RAFT MADE UP OF FREE-FLOATING
LOGS ENCLOSED IN A BOOM, DESIGNED TO RIDE LAKE
GROUND SWELLS OVER GREAT DISTANCES ON THE LAKE'S
SURFACES.

BOOM-DOGS - TWO 5 1/2" IRON WEDGES CONNECTED BY FOUR
TO EIGHT LINKS OF CHAIN. WEDGES WERE DRIVEN INTO THE ENDS
OF THE LOGS, CHAINING THEM TOGETHER TO MAKE A FLOATING
FENCE OR BOOM.

BOOMING GROUNDS - WERE LOCATED AT THE MOUTHS OF THE
MAIN STREAMS AND WERE WHERE THE LOG DRIVES TERMINATED.
HERE, LOGS WERE SORTED ACCORDING TO COMPANY LOG MARKS,
GATHERED TOGETHER INTO RAFTS WITH ROPE AND HARDWOOD PINS,
AND TOWED TO THE SAWMILLS. THE LARGEST BOOM COMPANY IN
THE SAGINAW VALLEY WAS THE TITTABAWASSEE RIVER BOOM
CO. IT OWNED OVER TWELVE MILES OF BOOMS. DURING PEAK
YEARS, THE TITTABAWASSEE BOOM CO. PURCHASED 110 TONS
OF RAFTING ROPE, WHICH WOULD "BARELY LAST 60 DAYS."
IN 1872, THE COMPANY SPENT $64,541 FOR RAFTING ROPE
AND ALMOST $10,000 FOR RAFTING PINS.

BOOM-STICKS - A KIND OF NARROW, WOODEN PLANK CATWALK,
HELD UP JUST ABOVE THE WATER LEVEL BY PILINGS.
SORTERS STOOD ON BOOM-STICKS WHILE SORTING LOGS
AT THE BOOMING GROUNDS.

BUCKING LOGS - CUTTING OR SAWING FELLED TREES INTO
12, 14, 16, 18 OR 20 FOOT LENGTHS. USING A CROSS-CUT
SAW, TWO SAWYERS WORKING TOGETHER, COULD "BUCK" ABOUT
ONE HUNDRED LOGS A DAY.

CANT HOOK - A TAPERED WOODEN POLE, THREE TO SIX FEET
LONG WITH A SEVEN TO NINE INCH, LOOSE DANGLING HOOK
NEAR ITS WORKING END. CANT HOOKS WERE USED FOR
LOADING LOGS ON SLEIGHS, ON SKIDS AND FOR DECKING LOGS
AT THE BANKING GROUNDS OR ROLLAWAYS. THE CANT HOOK
MAN PLACED THE HOOK ON A LOG AND BORE DOWN ON THE
HANDLE, GAVE IT A PULL AND THE LOG WOULD CANT OVER.
A GOOD CANT HOOK MAN WAS HIGHLY RESPECTED IN THE
LOGGING CAMPS. CANTING LOGS WAS A DANGEROUS JOB.

CHEAT STICK - THE LOGGER'S RULE OR SCALE, SIMILAR
IN APPEARANCE TO A YARDSTICK, WITH A METAL TIP ON
ONE END. IT WAS USED TO MEASURE LOGS, NOTING THE
NUMBER OF BOARD FEET EACH CONTAINED. THE TWO SCALES
MOST COMMONLY USED WERE THE SCRIBNER'S SCALE AND
DOLYE'S {DOYLE'S?} RULE.

CHICKADEE - THE CHICKADEE'S HUMBLE TASK WAS TO KEEP
THE LOGGING ROADS AND TRAILS FREE OF HORSE MANURE.

CORKS - ALSO KNOWN AS "CAULKS" AND "KORKS." THEY WERE
THE LONG, NEEDLE-SHARP SPIKES IN THE RIVERMAN'S BOOT
HEELS AND SOLES, TO KEEP HIM FROM SLIPPING FROM THE
LOGS WHEN HE RODE THEM DOWN THE SWIFT STREAMS.

CROSS-CUT - A SAW SOMETIMES SEVEN OR EIGHT FEET LONG
WITH CUTTING EDGE SLIGHTLY CURVED OR BOW-LIKE FROM
END TO END. IT WAS EQUIPPED WITH A HANDLE AT EACH END
SO TWO MEN COULD WORK, ONE FROM EACH SIDE OF A TREE,
FELLING IT AND THEN BUCKING IT INTO LOGS.

CROSS-HAUL - A SORT OF WAY STATION WHERE LOGS WERE
SNAKED OR DRAGGED BY HORSES OR OXEN TO AWAIT BEING
TRANSPORTED TO SKIDWAY OR BANKING AROUND.

DEACON - THE SHANTY BOY WHO COULD SING BALLADS OR RECITE
VERSES, PLAY THE HARMONICA, SQUEEZE BOX, FIDDLE,
GUITAR, JEW'S-HARP, OR TELL A GOOD YARN. HE USUALLY
PERFORMED FOR THE MEN IN THE BUNKHOUSE ON SATURDAY
NIGHT, SITTING OR STANDING ON THE DEACON'S BENCH
WHILE ENTERTAINING.

FLY BOOM - A BOOM OR ENCLOSURE MADE OF LONG TIMBERS
CHAINED TOGETHER, TO BE STRUNG ACROSS A STREAM AND
FASTENED TO A TREE ON THE OPPOSITE BANK WHENEVER
TROUBLE THREATENED BELOW. "JAM BELOW!" BROUGHT
IMMEDIATE RESULTS.

GRAYBACK - LICE OR BEDBUGS.

GUT HAMMER - A METAL TRIANGLE ON WHICH COOKEE BEAT
A TATTOO TO CALL THE SHANTY BOYS TO MEALS.

INK SLINGER - THE CLERK WHO KEPT TIME AND PRODUCTION
RECORDS IN THE LOGGING CAMP. HE SOMETIMES DOUBLE AS
A SCALER.

JAM - WHEN LOGS BECAME HUNG UP ON SAND BARS, BENDS
IN RIVERS, ON ROCKS OR OTHER OBSTACLES, LOGS SOMETIMES
BACKED UP FOR MILES. A LOG JAM WAS ONE OF THE MOST
DANGEROUS AND CONSTANT HAZARDS OF A RIVER DRIVE.

JOBBER'S SUNS - KEROSENE TORCHES USED FOR NIGHT WORK
IN THE WOODS.
KERF - THE GASH IN A LOG, MADE BY THE SAW.

LOG MARK - A BRAND OR MARK STRUCK WITH A HEAVY MARKING
HAMMER, ON EACH END OF ALL CUT LOGS TO DESIGNATE OWNERSHIP.
THE RAISED DESIGNS ON THE STRIKING SURFACE OF THE HAMMER
WERE MANY AND VARIED, TRIANGLES, CIRCLES, FIGURES, AND
COMBINATIONS OF ALL OF THESE. THE LOG MARK WAS FIRST
DEVELOPED AND USED IN MICHIGAN, NEAR MUSKEGON IN 1842
AND WAS ADOPTED THROUGHOUT MICHIGAN LOGGING CAMPS.

LOGGER'S SMALL POX - SAWMILL TOWNS' WOOD PLANK SIDE-
WALKS, SALOON AND DANCE HALL FLOORS AND THE FACES OF
VICTIMS OF BARROOM BRAWLS ALWAYS SHOWED SIGNS OF IT.
IT WAS A COMMON MALADY DURING THE BRAWLING DAYS OF
LOGGING ERA, MARKS LEFT BY THE RIVERHOGS' CORKED
BOOTS.

LUMBER HOOKER - A SHALLOW DRAFT LAKE VESSEL THAT
CARRIED CARGOS OF LUMBER TO LAKE PORTS. IN THE EARLY
DAYS OF LUMBERING, THE THREEMASTED, FORE-'N-AFT
SCHOONERS SAILED THE LAKES, POWERED ONLY BY THE WIND,
THEIR HOLDS FILLED AND DECKS SOMETIMES PILED TWELVE
FEET HIGH WITH LUMBER. THE BOOM JAWS WERE SHIFTED UP
THE MAST TO ALLOW FOR STACKED CARGO. GRADUALLY, THE
WINDJAMMERS WERE SHORN OF THEIR SAILS AND CONVERTED TO
BARGES. THEY WERE LOADED WITH LUMBER AND TOWED BY TUGS
OR WOODEN STEAMERS. IT WAS NOT UNUSUAL TO SEE A SOW AND
HER PIGS, A STEAMER OF LOGS FOLLOWED BY A STRING OF
THREE, FOUR OR FIVE CONSORTS CAPABLE OF TRANSPORTING
OVER 3,000,000 FEET OF LUMBER. AS YEARS PASSED, WOODEN
STEAMSHIPS GREW LONGER AND WERE STRENGTHENED TO CARRY
GREATER LOADS OF LUMBER IN THEIR HOLDS AND ON THEIR
DECKS. THEY BECAME THE FORERUNNERS OF THE STEEL
FREIGHTERS WE SEE ON THE LAKES TODAY.

MARKING HAMMERS - ALSO CALLED STAMPING AX, IRON,
BRANDING AX, STAMP HAMMER MARKING IRON. A HAMMER-
LIKE TOOL THAT WAS USED TO STRIKE THE OWNER'S MARK
ON THE END OF THE LOGS. THE STRIKING SURFACE OF THE
HAMMER HAD THE OWNER'S MARK RAISED ON IT AND SHARPENED
SO IT WOULD EASILY CUT INTO THE SOFT WOOD OF THE LOG.
THE A.F. BARTLETT COMPANY, A FOUNDRY FIRM IN SAGINAW,
WAS THE CHIEF MAKER OF MARKING HAMMERS IN THE
SAGINAW VALLEY.

PEAVEY - THE RIVERMAN'S TOOL INVENTED BY JOSEPH PEAVEY
OF MAINE IN 1858. A STOUT, TAPERED, WOODEN POLE
APPROXIMATELY FIVE TO SIX FEET LONG, WITH A STEEL OR
IRON POINT ON ITS END AND A LARGE, DANGLING HOOK THAT
OPENED TO EIGHT OR TEN INCHES. THE PEAVEY WAS USED FOR
TURNING, ROLLING, JABBING AND HOOKING LOGS PILED ON
TOP OF EACH OTHER AND TO FREE THEM FROM OBSTACLES OR
FROM RIVER BANKS.

PIKE POLE - A LONG WOODEN POLE WITH A SHARP IRON OR STEEL
POINT AND A SMALL, SPUR-LIKE STATIONARY HOOK. PIKE POLES
WERE FROM SIX TO TWENTY FEET LONG AND WERE USED BY
RIVERMEN TO JAB, PUSH AND PULL LOGS HUNG UP IN THE
STREAMS OR AT THE BOOMING GROUNDS IN THE SORTING PENS.

PIN WHACKER - USUALLY A LIGHTWEIGHT MAN OR BOY WHO
WORKED IN ONE OF THE MANY SORTING PENS OR POCKET-BOOMS
AT THE BOOMING GROUNDS. HIS JOB WAS TO STAND ON EACH
LOG AS IT FLOATED INTO THE PEN, AND WITH A WOODEN
MALLET, DRIVE A STAPLE-LIKE HARDWOOD RAFTING PIN OVER
A LENGTH OF ROPE, PINNING IT TO THE CENTER OF THE LOG.
AS EACH LOG ENTERED THE ENCLOSURE, IT WAS PINNED, ROPED
AND DRAWN UP NEXT TO ITS NEIGHBOR. THUS A RAFT WAS MADE
AND READY TO BE TOWED AWAY.

PUSHER - THE FOREMAN OR BOSS OF THE LOGGING CAMP.

RIVERHOG - ALSO CALLED RIVERPIG, WHITE-WATER MAN,
RIVERJACK, RIVERDRIVER. THESE MEN WERE AGILE, SKILLFUL,
FEARLESS INDIVIDUALS WHO DROVE THE LOGS ON THE RIVERS
FROM THE ROLLAWAYS TO THE BOOMING GROUNDS.

ROAD-MONKEYS - ALSO CALLED A LANDING BANKING OR DECKING
GROUND. AN INCLINED WAY ON THE RIVER BANK, WHERE LOGS WERE
DECKED OR STACKED HORIZONTALLY UPON EACH OTHER OR PILED
LIKE GIANT JACKSTRAWS DOWN THE BANK AND ON THE FROZEN
STREAMS DURING THE WINTER MONTHS. THIS WAS THE STARTING
POINT OF THE RIVER DRIVES.

'ROUND FORTY - A DISHONEST WAY TO CUT TIMBER. A LOGGING
COMPANY, AFTER PURCHASING LAND, WOULD NOT ONLY CUT THE
TIMBER ON THAT PIECE, BUT DISHONESTLY CUT TREES ON LAND
SURROUNDING IT. LEGISLATION, MAKING THE PRACTICE ILLEGAL,
WAS EFFECTIVE IN 1903 BUT TOO LATE TO BENEFIT THE STATE
OF MICHIGAN. MOST OF THE WHITE PINE HAD BEEN CUT.

SCALER - THE MAN WHO ESTIMATED HOW MANY BOARD FEET OF
LUMBER THERE WERE IN EACH LOG AT SKIDWAY OR ROLLAWAY.
THE SCALER USED A LOGGER'S RULE TO MEASURE THE LOGS.

SHANTY BOYS - LOGGERS, WOODSMEN. THESE WERE THE HARDY
MEN WHO LIVED AND WORKED IN THE LOGGING CAMPS,
CHOPPING DOWN AND SAWING THE WHITE PINE TREES INTO LOGS
THEN SWAMPING, SKIDDING AND FINALLY LOADING THE LOGS
ON THE SLEIGHS AND DECKING THEM HIGH AT THE ROLLAWAYS.

SHOOKS - BARREL STAVES, HOOPS AND HEADS SHIPPED
KNOCKED-DOWN TO SAVE SPACE.

SKIDDING TONGS - STEEL TONGS, SIMILAR TO HUGE ICE TONGS.
THEY WERE CLAMPED ON ONE END OF A LOG WHICH WAS THEN
DRAGGED OR SNAKED TO A CROSS HAUL OR SKIDWAY BY A TEAM
OF HORSES OR OXEN.

SKIDWAY - PLATFORMS OF PILED LOGS PILED AT WAY-STATIONS
ALONG THE SLEIGH ROADS. THE LOGS WERE LOADED ON SLEDS AT
THESE STATIONS AND HAULED OVER ICED ROADS TO THE ROLLAWAYS
ON THE RIVER BANKS.

SLEIGH - ALSO CALLED BOBSLEIGH, BOBSLED OR SLED. THE MAJOR
VEHICLE FOR TRANSPORTING SAWLOGS FROM THE SKIDWAYS TO THE
ROLLWAYS. RUNNERS ON A SLED WERE SIX TO EIGHT INCHES WIDE
AND ABOUT EIGHT FEET LONG. FASTENED ABOVE EACH PAIR OF
RUNNERS WAS A TEN TO SIXTEEN-INCH-WIDE WOODEN CROSS BEAM
KNOWN AS A BUNK. THE LOGS WERE LOADED ON THE BUNKS AND
HAULED BY TEAMS OF HORSES OVER ICED ROADS TO THE ROLLAWAY.
A LOADED SLEIGH OF SIX THOUSAND FEET OF LOGS, OR SIXTY
THOUSAND POUNDS WAS NOT UNUSUAL.

SORTER - ALSO CALLED GAP SORTER. SORTERS WERE STATIONED
AT THE ENTRANCES OF INDIVIDUAL ENCLOSURES OR PENS LOCATED OFF
EACH SIDE OF THE LOG CENTRAL CHANNEL OF THE BOOMING
GROUNDS. THE SORTERS STOOD ON CATWALKS AND AS THE LOGS
FLOATED DOWN THE CHANNEL TOWARD THEM, THEY LOOKED FOR
THEIR COMPANY'S LOG MARKS STAMPED ON THE ENDS OF THE
LOGS. THE IDENTIFIED LOGS WERE POLED WITH LONG PIKE-POLES
INTO THE PENS WHERE THE ACCUMULATED LOGS, ALL BEARING THE
SAME MARKS, WERE MADE INTO RAFTS AND THEN TOWED TO THE MILL.

SNUBBERS (SNUBBING) - SLEIGH ROADS WERE USUALLY DOWN
INCLINED WAYS LEADING TO THE BANKING GROUNDS. A COMMON WAY
TO KEEP THE HEAVILY LOADED SLEIGH FROM RUNNING OVER THE
HORSES AND SPILLING THE LOAD, WAS FOR MEN TO HOOK ROPES
TO THE SLED, THEN LOOP THE OTHER ENDS OF THE ROPES
AROUND TWO OR MORE STOUT TREES OR STUMPS TO HOLD THE SLEIGH
IN CHECK. THE SLEIGH WAS THEN GENTLY EASED DOWN THE
TREACHEROUS ROAD BY GRADUALLY LETTING OUT ON THE TAUT
ROPES UNTIL THE SLED WAS ON LEVEL GROUND ONCE MORE.
ANY BRAKING DEVICE ON SLEIGH OR WAGON WAS CALLED A
SNUBBER.

SPRINKLER - A DEVICE USED TO ICE THE SLEIGH ROADS. A
SQUARE, STRONGLY-BUILT WOODEN TANK, HOLDING AS HIGH AS
ONE HUNDRED BARRELS OF WATER, WAS PLACED UPON A PAIR OF
SLEDS WITH A TONGUE AT EACH END TO SAVE TURNING IT
AROUND. THE TANK WAS GENERALLY BUILT AS WIDE AS THE ROAD,
OR THE WIDTH OF THE SLED, WHICH HAD ELEVEN TO FOURTEEN FOOT
BUNKS. THE WATER ESCAPED FROM TWO HOLES LOCATED DIRECTLY
OVER THE RUNNER'S TRACKS. ON COLD NIGHTS THE WATER FROZE
ALMOST INSTANTLY ON REACHING THE ROAD. ICING THE SLEIGH
ROAD WAS DONE AT NIGHT BY TEAMSTERS SO AS NOT TO
INTERFERE WITH TEAMS HAULING LOGS BY DAY. CRUDE BOILERS WERE
SOMETIMES USED TO KEEP THE WATER IN THE TANK FROM
FREEZING BEFORE IT REACHED THE GROUND.

TEAMSTER - THE MAN WHO DROVE THE HORSES, OXEN OR MULES,
HAULING SUPPLIES, DRIVING THE BOBSLED, SKIDDING LOGS OR
ICING THE CAMP SLEIGHROADS. THE TEAMSTER WAS USUALLY
HIRED ALONG WITH HIS TEAM OF HORSES.

TRAVOIS - SOMETIMES CALLED A GO DEVIL, A SHORT, HEAVY SLED
(MANY TIMES CUT FROM A FORKED BRANCH OF A TREE) USED TO
SUPPORT ONE END OF A LOG OR SEVERAL LOGS THAT WERE
DRAGGED BY A TEAM OVER THE GROUND TO THE SKIDWAY.

VALLEY BOYS - SAGINAW VALLEY LOGGERS HAD LEGENDARY
REPUTATIONS OF BEING ROUGH AND TOUGH, WHO COULD OUTFIGHT
OUTDRINK, OUTSAW ANY OTHER BLANKITY-BLANKITY SHANTY BOY
IN THE UPPER OR LOWER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN.

WANIGAN - ALSO SPELLED WANNEGAN, WANGAN, ETC. THE WORD HAD
DIFFERENT MEANINGS AND SPELLINGS IN DIFFERENT CAMPS AND IN
VARIOUS PARTS OF THE COUNTRY... BUT MOST ALWAYS A WANIGAN
WAS KNOWN AS A SCOW OR RAFT WITH A RAISED DECK, AND A PINE
SLAB SHACK, LOG CABIN OR CANVAS TENT PERCHED ON TOP. THE
WANIGAN WAS A KITCHEN, OFFICE, SUPPLY ROOM, DINING SHACK
AND CAMP STORE (VAN) DURING THE SPRING RIVER DRIVES. SEVERAL
WANIGANS WERE USUALLY CHAINED TOGETHER AND FLOATED DOWN
THE LOGGING STREAMS BEHIND THE RIVERMEN TO SERVE THEM
WHILE THE DRIVE WAS ON.

WHITE PINE - A CONE-BEARING EVERGREEN THAT REACHED THE
HEIGHT OF ABOUT EIGHTY TO ONE HUNDRED FIFTY FEET, AND HIGHER
THE TRUNK MEASURING AS MUCH AS FOUR TO SEVEN FEET IN
DIAMETER. THE NEEDLES OF THE WHITE PINE COME IN A BUNDLE
OF FIVES AND ARE PLEASANTLY AROMATIC. ITS CONE DROOPS AND
ARE FROM THREE TO FIVE INCHES IN LENGTH. THE MICHIGAN WHITE
PINE WAS THE MOST VALUABLE TO LUMBERMEN OF THE THREE NATIVE
PINES BECAUSE OF ITS HEIGHT, BUOYANCY, ITS STRAIGHT TRUNK
AND ITS SMOOTH, ALMOST WHITE WOOD.
WIDOW-MAKER - A LONG LIMB ON A TREE WHICH COULD FALL ON A
MAN AND KILL HIM.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Subject headings: SPEECH -- Trade & commerce

Date learned: 03-04-1990

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MY DARLING OLD STAG

YOU MAY SING OF YOUR ROSE COVERED BOWERS;
YOU MAY RAVE OF YOUR HILLS AND YOUR VALES;
YOU MAY TALK ABOUT SWEET SCENTED FLOWERS,
OR TEMPT WITH ARABIAN NIGHT TALES;
ALL ARE FEEBLE AND WEAK TO MY SONG;
ALL ARE ONLY TATTERS AND RAGS;
I'VE A THEME THAT CLINGS TO ME STRONG,
'TIS THIS DEAR PAIR OF OLD LEATHER "STAGS."
WHEN MY DAY OF HARD LABOR IS DONE,
AND MY SUPPER IS STOWED 'NEATH MY BELT;
WHEN THE "BUNK CAMP" IS BRIMMING WITH FUN,
AND THE FIRE IN THE STOVE WOULD YOU MELT;
O IT'S THEN WITH MY PIPE SMOKING FREE,
I LIST TO THE SHANTY BOYS' GAGS;
I JOIN IN THE FROLIC AND GLEE,
WITH MY HOOFS IN MY DARLING OLD "STAGS."
THESE "STAGS" THEY WERE ONCE LONG TOP BOOTS
THE TOPS I CUT OFF LONG AGO.
THERE'S NOTHING NOW LEFT BUT THE ROOTS,
STILL THEY'RE HANDY TO WEAR OR TO THROW,
AT SOME SHANTY BOY SNORING IN BED,
OR A WATCH PEDDLING SON OF A WAG;
I CAN SHY THEM SO NEAT AT A HEAD
FOR CONVENIENT AT TIMES IS A "STAG."

Submitter comment: SUNG BY AN ELDER OF THE LOGGING CAMP ON SATURDAY
NIGHT.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Joy Happiness
Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Good humor Jest

Date learned: 03-04-1990

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"ZE SKUNK, ZE SKUNK"

I HUNT ZE BEAR; I HUNT ZE WOLF;
SOMETIMES I HUNT ZE RAT.
LAS' WEEK I TAKE MY AX
AN' HUNT ZE SKUNK POLECAT.
MY FRIEND JACQUES SAYS HE'S VER' GOOD FUR,
AN' SOMETIME GOOD TO EAT.
I TELL MY WIFE I GET FUR COAT
AN' SAME TIME GET SOME MEAT.
I WALK TWO, T'REE, FOUR MILE.
I FEEL WAN AWFUL SMELL.
I SAY DIS SKUNK HE'S UP AND DIE,
AN' FUR COAT GONE TO HELL.
BIMEBY I SEE ZE SKUNK,
CLOSE UP BY ONE BEEG TREE.
I SNEAK UP VERA CLOSE BEHIN',
AN' T'INK HE'S NO SEE ME.
BIMEBY I'M CLOSE UP BY ZE SKUNK.
I RAISE MY AX UP HIGH,
WHEN ... UP, KERPLUNK, DIS DAM', DAM' SKUNK
SHE'S T'ROW SOMET'ING IN MY EYE.
SACRE BLU! I T'INK I'M BLIN'.
GEE WHIZ! I CAN NO SEE!
I WALK ROUN' AN' ROUN' AN' ROUN'
AN' BUMP IN DAM' OL' TREE!
BIMEBY I DROP MY AX
AN' LIGHT OUT FOR DA SHACK.
I T'INK A MILLION SKUNKS
DEY CLIM' UPON MY BACK.
MY WIFE SHE MEET ME AT DA DOOR.
SHE SEEK ON ME DA DOG.
SHE SAY."YOU NO SLEEP HERE TONIGHT.
YOU GO SLEEP MIT DA HOG."
I TRY TO CLIM' IN HOG PEN.
GEE WHIZ! NOW WHAT YOU TINK?
DAT DAM' O' HOG NOT STAN' FOR DAT
ON 'COUNT OF AWFUL STINK.
NO MORE I'M HUNT ZE SKUNK POLECAT
TO GET HIS FUR OR MEAT.
FOR IF HIS BREATH HE SMELL SO BAD,
GEE WHIZ WHAT EEFF HE SPEET.

Submitter comment: THIS POEM WAS USUALLY RECITED AROUND A FIRE ON
SATURDAY NIGHTS AT THE LOGGING CAMP.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): LOGGING POEMS

James Callow Keyword(s): FRENCH DIALECT ; SPIT

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Narrative Verse

Date learned: 03-04-1990

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OLE PETE BATEESE

OLE PETE BATEESE GOT CHASE ONE NIGHT
BY WOLF UP BY THE SOO.
DESE WOLF DEY T'REE, FOUR IN DE PACK
AND DEY SCARE HIM TRU AND TRU.
PRETTY SOON OLE PETE CLIMB UP A TREE;
HE T'INK HE STAY AWHILE.
DESE WOLF DEY SIT DOWN IN DE SNOW
AND LICK DERE CHOPS AND SMILE.
PETE QUICK TWO WOLF GO TROT AWAY;
PETE T'INK DE REST SOON GO.
PRETTY QUICK DESE WOLF COME RIGHT STRAIGHT BACK;
PETE'S SPIRITS DEY SINK LOW.
FOR W'AT YOU T'INK DESE WOLF DEY GOT?
BIG BEAVER- ONE? NO- TWO!
DEY SET DEM DOWN BESIDE DAT TREE
AND SAY, "BY GAR, NOW CHEW."
DOSE BEAVER START IN CHEW DAT TREE;
DEY CHEW LIKE BEAT DE BAND.
PETE T'INK HE SOON BE ON DE GROUN'
UNLESS HE TAKE A HAND.
SO PETE PULL OUT HIS ONE-QUART HOOCH
AND LET IT RUN OUT SLOW.
IT TRICKLE DOWN DE TRUNK TO WHERE
DOSE BEAVER CHEW BELOW.
DOSE BEAVER DEY GOT DRUNK, BY GAR.
DEY DON'T SEE NONE TOO GOOD.
DEY MAKE MISTAKE AND CHEW DE WOLF
INSTEAD OF CHEW DE TREE.
DOSE WOLF RUN 'WAY, AND PETE CLIMB DOWN
AND SIT DOWN IN DE SNOW.
AND CRY AND CRY TO T'INK FOR WHERE
HIS ONE-QUART HOOCH SHE GO.

Submitter comment: THIS POEM IS RECITED ON WEEKEND PARTIES BY
CHEERS FROM THE LOGGING CREWS.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

James Callow Keyword(s): FRENCH DIALECT

Subject headings: Favorites
Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Narrative Verse

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THE SHANTY BOY

"AS I WALKED OUT ONE EVENING, JUST AS THE SUN WENT DOWN.
I CARELESSLY DID RAMBLE TILL I CAME TO SAGINAW TOWN.
I HEARD TWO GIRLS CONVERSING, AS SLOWLY I PASSED THEM BY;
ONE SAID SHE LOVED A FARMER'S SON, AND THE OTHER A SHANTY
BOY.
"THE ONE THAT LOVED THE FARMER'S SON, THESE WORDS I HEARD
HER SAY,
'THE REASON WHY I LOVE HIM IS AT HOME WITH ME HE'LL STAY;
HE'LL STAY AT HOME ALL WINTER, TO THE WOODS HE WILL NOT GO,
AND WHEN THE SPRINGTIME COMES AGAIN, HIS LANDS HE'LL
PLOW AND SOW.'
'I SHALL ALWAYS PRAISE MY SHANTY BOY WHO GOES TO THE
WOODS IN THE FALL,
HE IS BOTH STOUT AND HEARTY AND FIT TO STAND A SQUALL;
WITH PLEASURE I WILL GREET HIM IN THE SPRING WHEN
HE COMES DOWN.
HIS MONEY ON ME HE'LL SPEND IT FREE WHEN YOUR MOSSBACK
HE HAS NONE.'
HOW CAN YOU PRAISE YOUR SHANTY BOY WHO TO THE WOODS
DOES GO?
HE'S ORDERED OUT BEFORE DAYLIGHT TO FACE THE FROST AND SNOW,
WHILE HAPPY AND CONTENTED MY FARMER'S SON WILL LIE,
SOFT TALES OF LOVE HE'LL TELL TO ME WHILE THE STORMS
ARE BLOWING BY.'
'I NEVER CAN STAND THAT SOFT TALK,' THE OTHER GIRL DID SAY,
'THE MOST OF THEM THEY ARE SO GREEN THE COWS COULD EAT
THEM FOR HAY;
HOW EASY IT IS TO KNOW THEM WHEN THEY COME INTO TOWN,
THE SMALL BOY SHOUTING AFTER THEM, "MOSSBACK, HOW COME
YOU DOWN?'
'WHAT I'VE SAID UNKIND OF YOUR SHANTY BOY, I DO NOT
MEAN IT SO,
AND IF EVER I MEET WITH ONE OF THEM ALONG WITH HIM
I'LL GO,
AND LEAVE MY MOSSBACK FARMERS' SON TO PLOUGH AND PLANT
HIS FARM.
WHILE MY SHANTY BOY SO BOLD AND FREE WILL SAVE ME FROM
ALL HARM.

Submitter comment: THIS SONG COMES FROM NOT AN EDUCATED PERSON BUT FROM
THE HEART OF A LUMBERING CREW. IT FITS THE MENTALITY
OF THE AVERAGE LOGGING CREW.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): LOGGING SONGS ; SHANTY BOY

James Callow Keyword(s): CONTRASTED OCCUPATIONS

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Ballad Epic

Date learned: 03-04-1990

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SILVER JACK

HE WAS JOHN DRISCOLL, FRIENDS--AND BEST KEEP A CIVIL
TONGUE IN YOUR HEAD AND BE SPARING WITH THE LINGERING
LOOK, IF YOU WERE IN HIS WHEREABOUTS WHEN THE SAGINAW
VALLEY WAS STREWN WITH THE SAWDUST AND GAUDY LEGENDS OF
LUMBERJACKS AND RIVERMEN.
HE WAS THE REDOUBTABLE "SILVER JACK" DRISCOLL. THEY SAID
HE COULD BEND A RAILROAD SPIKE BARE-HANDED - THAT HE
COULD BOOST A BARREL OF SALT UP OVER HIS HEAD AND HOLD
IT THERE WHILE DRINKING A PINT OF WHISKEY HELD BETWEEN
CLENCHED TEETH.
THEY SAID YOU NEVER SAW A BIG MAN SO CAT-QUICK -- WHETHER
WHIRLING HIS BIG, HARD FISTS IN A SALOON BRAWL, OR
KNUCKLED TIGHTLY ABOUT THE HANDLE OF A TWO-BITTED AXE
MEASURING A FOREST PINE.
THEY SAID SILVER JACK WAS A KIND OF ROUGHSHOD, LUMBER
DAY ROBIN HOOD WHO CUDGELED TORMENTORS OF THE WEAK.
THEY SAID HE WAS A SAVAGE VARLET AND BULLY WHO LIKED
TO WATCH BLOOD SPURT AFTER HIS FIST STRUCK.
THEY SAID MANY THINGS OF SILVER JACK DRISCOLL, MOST
CONTROVERSIAL LUMBERJACK AND RIVERMAN OF HIS TIME.
HE PLIED THE LENGTH AND BREADTH OF THE MICHIGAN
PINELANDS AND LOG STREAMS. THERE IS A RECORD OF HIM
IN MINNESOTA AND CANADA. BUT IT WAS IN THE SAGINAW
VALLEY THAT DRISCOLL ENDURED LASTING FAME -- CALL
IT NOTORIETY IF YOU WILL.
SOME SAID HE WAS CALLED SILVER JACK BECAUSE OF
PREMATURELY WHITE HAIR. OTHERS SAID HIS WAS FLAXEN-
WHITE. THERE ARE SEVERAL OLD-FASHIONED "TINTYPE"
PHOTOGRAPHS WHICH SHOW HIM A WITH CAREFULLY POMADED
MANE OF BLACK HAIR.
OLDTIME LOGGERS -- LONG DEPARTED FROM THIS VALE OF
NEON LIGHTS AND CHROME-PLATED GADGETS OF MODERN LIVING
ONCE TALKED OF THE SIGHT IT WAS TO SEE SILVER JACK
SWINGING DOWN THE CHALK-COVERED BOARDWALKS OF EAST
SAGINAW (NOW THE EAST SIDE) AND SAGINAW CITY (NOW
THE WEST SIDE).
THEY SAID NEVER WAS SUCH A ONE AS SILVER JACK TO
"BLOW HER IN" WITH A FAT WINTER'S PAYCHECK, AFTER
THE LOGS HAD BEEN DRIVEN DOWN THE RIVER OVER
FRESHET-SWOLLEN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SAGINAW.
OTHERS CLAIMED JACK DRISCOLL WAS GOADED INTO MOST
OF HIS MANY FISTIC INTERLUDES -- THAT HE HAD, IN
THE LUMBER ERA, THE EQUIVALENT OF A WILD WEST
TWO-GUN REPUTATION SOMEBODY ALWAYS WANTED TO TEST.
SOME VOWED HE WAS MUCH MISUNDERSTOOD AND MALIGNED -
A CHAP AN EARNEST PREACHER MIGHT HAVE FASHIONED INTO
AT LEAST A PROPER DEACON IN A DESERVING PARISH.
BUT HISTORY RECORDS THAT DRISCOLL, AN ACKNOWLEDGED
SOMETIME VISITOR IN LOCAL VILLAGE "POKEYS" IN THE
MICHIGAN PINELANDS, ALSO SERVED FIVE YEARS'
IMPRISONMENT IN SOUTHERN MICHIGAN PRISON. HE
WAS SENTENCED BY SAGINAW COUNTY CIRCUIT JUDGE
DEWITT GAGE ON A CHARGE OF ARMED ROBBERY. ADMIRERS
SAID HE WAS FRAMED. THE LAW SAID OTHERWISE.
SILVER JACK DRISCOLL DIED APRIL 1, 1895, IN A
HOTEL IN L'ANSE, MICHIGAN.
WHATEVER HIS EPITAPH, IT COULD HARDLY BE ADEQUATE,
SAINT OR SCALAWAG. HISTORIANS AMATEUR AND PROFESSIONAL,
ARE NOT AGREED EVEN TODAY.

Submitter comment: I AM NOT SURE WHO WROTE THIS STORY BUT IT DID COME
FROM THE FIRST ANNUAL TIMBER TOWN FESTIVAL
MAGAZINE AROUND 1950.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAGINAW

Keyword(s): LUMBERJACKS ; SAGINAW VALLEY LOGGING

James Callow Keyword(s): STRONG MEN

Subject headings: PROSE NARRATIVE -- Secular hero

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