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LENT

RED WINE IS TAKEN AT DINNER ON EVERY SUNDAY OF LENT EXCEPT THE THIRD.
WHITE WINE IS THEN TAKEN.
(MY UNCLE'S FRIEND WAS THE SOURCE OF THIS)

Submitter comment: ( THIS IS ) NOT NECESSARILY ( A GERMAN CUSTOM ).

Where learned: DETROIT ; MICHIGAN, ASSUMED

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: 663 Lent
BELIEF -- Sign Color
BELIEF -- Number

Date learned: 00001960S

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LENT

HOT CROSS BUNS ARE A BIG PART OF LENT AND ARE EATEN ALOT AT THIS
TIME.

Submitter comment: HIS MOTHER TOLD HIM THIS.
( THIS IS NOT ONLY OBSERVED AMONG SCOTCH-AMERICANS. )

Data entry tech comment: THESE BUNS CAME FROM THE CUSTOM OF MAKING THE SIGN OF THE CROSS OVER
BREAD BEFORE EATING IT. IN THEIR NEXT STAGE, BUNS WERE MADE WITH
A CROSS IMPRINTED ON THEM. AND FINALLY, THEY EVOLVED INTO THE HOT
CROSS BUNS OF TODAY--SPICED DOUGH, SOMETIMES WITH RAISINS, AND WITH
CROSSES OF FROSTING ON TOP.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; DETROIT ; DORM ROOM

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: 663 Lent

Date learned: 09-00-1967

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LENTEN CUSTOM

DURING LENT, THE BYZNATINE ( BYZANTINE ) FAITHFUL ABSTAINED FROM
CUSTOMARY FOOD, IN THE OLD WORLD. MEAT WAS FOR SURVIVAL, AND FASTING
WAS KEPT VERY STRICT.

Submitter comment: THIS CUSTOM IS NO LONGER KEPT IN THE INFORMANT'S FAMILY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; SELF-SACRIFICE

Subject headings: 663 Lent

Date learned: 03-17-1970

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LENTEN FAST--RUSSIAN

DURING THE FORTY DAYS BEFORE EASTER, THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE WERE NOT
ALOWED TO EAT MEAT, FISH, MILK OR CREAM. THEY WERE ONLY
ALLOWED TO EAT VEGETABLES SUCH AS POTATOES, SAURKRAUT ( SAUERKRAUT ),
ETC.
NOTE: TOLD TO MY MOTHER BY HER NEIGHBOR MRS. MARY YASHIN
WHO GREW UP IN SARATOV, RUSSIA.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; WARREN

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; SELF-SACRIFICE

Subject headings: 663 Lent

Date learned: 10-10-1968

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LENT

MOST FAMILIES HAVE A LOT OF SOUP DURING LENT IN PLACE OF MEATS.
ACQUIRED THIS EVERY LENT.

Where learned: OSGOOD ROAD, ASSUMED ; MILFORD ; NEW HAMPSHIRE, ASSUMED

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE ; FOOD CUSTOM ; SELF-SACRIFICE

Subject headings: 663 Lent

Date learned: 08-00-1967

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LENT

ON MONDAY, WEDNESDAY, AND FRIDAY OF LENT THE INFORMANT'S FATHER
ATE ONLY HERRING, POTATOES, AND CABBAGE, ALL WITHOUT THE BENEFIT OF
WATER.

Where learned: DETROIT ; MICHIGAN, ASSUMED

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; SELF-SACRIFICE

Subject headings: 663 Lent

Date learned: 09-00-1971

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PRETZEL SUNDAY

A FOLK CUSTOM IS STILL WIDELY OBSERVED ON THE FOURTH SUNDAY IN LENT
IN LUXEMBOURG. YOUNG MEN PRESENT CAKES, BRIGHTLY DECORATED AND BAKED
IN THE FORM OF PRETZELS TO THE YPUNG WOMEN. IF THE GIRL WISHES
TO ENCOURAGE THE YOUNG MAN, SHE GIVES HIM A DECORATED EGG ON EASTER
SUNDAY. IN LEAP YEAR, THE PLAN IS REVERSED: THE GIRL PRESENTS THE
CAKE AND THE BOY RECIPROCATES WITH AN EGG.

Data entry tech comment: PRETZELS HAVE BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH LENT SINCE THE BEGINNINGS OF
CHRISTIANITY. THE SHAPE IS SUPPOSED TO SUGGEST TWO
ARMS IN PRAYER.

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: 663 Lent
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter eggs
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.12
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday

Date learned: 03-18-1968

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POLISH FESTIVAL--EASTER VIGIL

"THE VIGILIA" - A THIRTEEN COURSE MEATLESS MEAL WITH DAIRY PRODUCTS
TO CELEBRATE END OF LENT AND THE COMING OF EASTER - MOSTLY COMPOSED
OF SOUPS AND SALADS.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30

Date learned: 01-29-1968

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EASTER:

PREPARATIONS FOR EASTER USUALLY BEGAN ON HOLY THURSDAY AND LASTED UP
TILL EASTER SUNDAY MORNING. THERE WAS CLEANING TO DO, BAKING,
COOKING, AND EGGS TO COLOR.
PEOPLE WERE REQUIRED TO GO TO MASS ON THURSDAY,
FRIDAY AND SATURDAY MORNINGS. ON SATURDAY AT MIDNIGHT THEY WERE ALSO
REQUIRED TO COME.
THE BAKING & COOKING STARTED OFF WITH "BABKA" - A POLISH KIND OF
BREAD; SWEET, WITH RAISINS. THIS WAS USUALLY EATEN WITH HONEY.
THERE WAS GOOSE, FISH, VEGETABLES - ALL KINDS OF FOOD IN HUGE
AMOUNTS. BUT WHAT EVERYONE ENJOYED MOST, WAS THE COLORING OF THE
EGGS.
BECAUSE LITHUANIANS ARE SO ARTISTIC, THEIR ART COMES OUT IN A SMALL
WAY ON THESE EGGS. THE PROCESS IS VERY SIMPLE: YOU TAKE A WAX
CANDLE, A PIN WITH A HEAD, AND A CLEAN, DRY, HARD-BOILED EGG. YOU
DIP THE PIN HEAD INTO THE MELTING WAX AND QUICKLY STROKE IT ONTO THE
EGG. WHEREVER THE WAX TOUCHES THE EGG, THE COLOR WILL NOT COVER IT
THERE. THERE ARE MANY MANY VARIOUS DESIGNS THAT YOU CAN CREATE
WITH THIS TYPE OF COLORING. AFTER THE WAX ON THE EGG IS DRY, YOU
DROP IT INTO COLD COLORS.
FOR A TWO COLOR, DUO-DESIGN EGG, IT IS JUST AS SIMPLE. THE EGG IS
WHITE FROM THE BEGINNING. YOU DRAW A DESIGN ON IT & DROP IT INTO
GREEN. YOU TAKE IT, PAT IT DRY VERY GENTLY AND THEN PROCEED WITH
ANOTHER DESIGN. YOU SIMPLY STROKE THE WAX ONTO THE GREEN PART OF THE
EGG & DROP IT INTO BLUE. LET'S SAY YOU KEEP IT IN FOR ONLY A FEW
MINUTES AND WHEN YOU TAKE IT: YOU HAVE A WHITE, GREEN & AQUA EGG.
THERE IS ANOTHER WAY OF COLORING EGGS, BUT MORE DIFFICULT. IT IS
HARDLY USED AT ALL TODAY, MY PARENTS NEVER USED IT, SO IT'S RATHER
HARD TO EXPLAIN. THE METHOD IS CARVING THE DESIGN RIGHT OUT ONTO THE
EGG. BUT SINCE I HAVEN'T BEEN ABLE TO FIND A MOST INFORMATIVE SOURCE
FOR THIS METHOD, THIS IS ALL I CAN SAY 'BOUT ( ABOUT ) IT.
EASTER MORNING, OR SATURDAY AT MIDNIGHT, THE CHURCH IS DARK, WITH
ONLY ONE DIM LIGHT IN THE BACK OF THE CHURCH. AT MIDNIGHT, THE
CANDLES ARE LIT, THE PEOPLE BEGIN TO SING AS THE PRIEST TAKES THE
MONSTRANCE AROUND THE CHURCH SEVERAL TIMES IN A PROCESSION. IN FRONT
OF THE PRIEST, THERE ARE SEVERAL GIRLS THROWING ROSE PETALS AT HIS
FEET. AFTER THE PROCESSION IS FINISHED, HE SAYS A SHORT PRAYER FOR
EVERYONE, BLESSES THE PEOPLE WITH HOLY WATER AND MASS BEGINS.
ON EASTER IN THE AFTERNOON, THE CHILDREN GET TOGETHER AND CHALLENGE
EACH OTHER TO AN "EGG-CONTEST". THIS REALLY CONSISTS OF TWO PARTS,
BUT THE OBJECTIVE IS THE SAME: TRYING TO CRACK THE OTHER EGG. THE
FIRST PART WOULD BE WHERE THE CHALLENGED EGG WAS BEING HELD WITH THE
POINTED NOSE UP, AND THE CHALLENGER WOULD ATTEMPT TO CRACK IT. IF
THE CHALLENGER'S EGG CRACKED, HE WAS THE LOSER. BUT IF THE
CHALLENGED EGG WON, HE COULD HAVE A SECOND TRY TO SEE HOW FAR HIS EGG
WOULD ROLL & IF HE CAN CRACK HIS OPPONENT'S EGG THIS WAY. THE
ROLLING WAS USUALLY HELD ON A GRASSY PIECE OF LAND. THERE WOULD BE A
SLANTED BOARD, SIMILAR TO A SLIDE AND THE EGGS WOULD BE ROLLED FROM
THIS. IF THE CHALLENGER'S EGG DEVELOPED A SECOND CRACK FROM HIS
OPPONENT, HE WAS OUT.
THE KIDS IN LITHUANIA DIDN'T RECEIVE EASTER BASKETS. THEY RECEIVED
EGGS, BUT HAD TO HUNT ALL OVER THE FARM FOR THEM. AND TO SOME LUCKY
ONES, IT BROUGHT THEM THE SATISFACTION OF HAVING THE STRONGEST EGG IN
THE VILLAGE.

Where learned: LOCATION NOT RECORDED BY COLLECTOR

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; GAME ; MUSIC ; WATER

Subject headings: 663 Holy Thursday
663 Good Friday
663 Holy Saturday
Favorites
Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Special Object or Implement
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter eggs
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30

Date learned: 03-26-1972

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( HOLY WEEK CUSTOMS )

SOME OF THE OLD WORLD CUSTOMS THAT ARE CELEBRATED BY
POLISH-AMERICANS, AND ARE A BIG PART OF OUR HERITAGE STEM FROM
OUR CATHOLIC FAITH. THE BIGGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT IS EASTER.
AT THE CONCLUSION OF HOLY THURSDAY SERVICES OUR ALTAR IS
STRIPPED OF ITS VESTMENTS AND IS LEFT BARE. THE TABERNACLE
IS LEFT OPEN AND THE SACREMENT REMOVED. AT THE SIDE ALTAR THE
SEPULCHRE IS PREPARED. AT 3:00 ON GOOD FRIDAY THE FIGURE OF
CHRIST WILL BE LYING IN THE TOMB. ON GOOD FRIDAY ( , )
BEGINNING AT 12:00 NOON ( , ) THE CHURCH IS FILLED TO CAPACITY
WITH WORSHIPPERS COMMENORATING ( COMMEMORATING ) CHRIST'S
CRUCIFIXION. THE CROSS IS CARRIED THROUGH THE AISLES COVERING
CHRIST'S FOOTSTEPS ON THE WAY TO CALVARY. AT 3:00, THE PRIEST
LEADS THE PROCESSION TO THE SEPULCHRE AND THE FIGURE OF CHRIST IS
UNCOVERED.
THE MORNING OF HOLY SATURDAY FINDS THE PEOPLE COMING TO THE CHURCH
TO RECEIVE HOLY WATER AND THORNS. IN POLISH HOMES YOU WILL FIND
A RECEPTACLE FOR HOLY WATER AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE BEDROOMS FROM
WHICH THE MOTHER BLESSES HER FAMILY WHILE THEY ARE ASLEEP AT
NIGHT. A VISIT IS PAID TO THE SEPULCHRE WHICH IS GUARDED BY
SOLDIERS. THE PARISHIONERS BRING EASTER LILIES TO ADORN CHRIST'S
TOMB. AT 1:00 WE BRING FOOD BASKETS TO THE CHURCH TO BE BLESSED,
WHICH WILL BE EATEN FOR BREAKFAST ON EASTER. THE FOOD CONSISTS OF
POLISH SAUSAGE (KIELBASA) ( , ) BUTTER SHAPED IN THE FORM OF A
LAMB WITH A RED RIBBON AROUND ITS NECK, SIGNIFYING CHRIST,
THE SLAIN LAMB. A SWEET BREAD MADE OF EGG AND SWEET RAISINS IS
BRAIDED INTO A LOAF, HORSERADISH AND COLORED EASTER ( EGGS ) ARE
ALSO IN THE BASKET.
EASTER MORNING AT 5:00 A.M. THE SUNRISE SERVICES BEGIN.
CHILDREN DRESSED IN WHITE ( , ) WEARING BLUE CAPES ( , ) COME IN
PROCESSION CARRYING FLOWERS. THEY ARE MET AT THE ALTAR BY THE
PRIEST AND WITH A TRUMPET FANFARE PROCEED TO THE TOMB. THERE
THEY FIND THE FIGURE OF CHRIST HAS BEEN REMOVED AND WHERE HE LAID
FLOWERS EN-MASSE. ARTIFICIAL SUNRAYS PROFUSE FROM THE TOMB, AND
THE SOLDIERS ARE GONE. CHRIST IS RISEN.
IN THE OLD COUNTRY EASTER MONDAY FINDS THE BOYS CHASING THEIR
GIRLS WITH LONG SWITCHES TO SWITCH THEIR LEGS. THEY IN TURN,
ARE CHASING THE BOYS WITH BUCKETS OF WATER.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAINT CLAIR SHORES

Keyword(s): DYNGUS DAY ; FOOD CUSTOM ; MUSIC ; RITUAL WHIPPING ; SWIECZONKA ; SYMBOL ; WATER

Subject headings: 663 Holy Thursday
663 Good Friday
663 Holy Saturday
Favorites
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter eggs
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Monday Dyngus
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30

Date learned: 11-10-1971

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TRADITIONAL POLISH CELEBRATION OF HOLY WEEK AND EASTER

ON HOLY THURSDAY THE BISHOPS AND PRIESTS WASH THE FEET OF 12
POOR PEOPLE IN MEMORY OF THE LAST SUPPER.
ON GOOD FRIDAY THERE IS A SPECIAL MASS WITH PRAYERS FOR ALL.
THE HOLY SACRAMENT IS PUT INTO A DARK CELL, AS CHRIST WAS, TO BE
ADORED CONSTANTLY. THERE IS A SPECIAL TOMB PUT UP AT A SIDE ALTAR
WHICH IS DECORATED WITH FLOWERS AND OFTEN DOVES. HERE THE PEOPLE
COME TO VISIT AND PRAY BOTH FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.
ON HOLY SATURDAY WATER AND THORNS ARE BLESSED IN THE MORNING AT
CHURCH. IN THE AFTERNOON, A BASKET OF FOOD IS TAKEN TO THE CHURCH TO
BE BLESSED. THE BASKET TRADITIONALLY CONTAINS BREAD, SALT, PEPPER,
EASTER EGGS (BOILED), KIELBASA (SAUSAGE), AND BUTTER IN THE FORM OF
A LAMB. ALSO, IT IS CUSTOMARY TO VISIT AS MANY CHURCHES AS POSSIBLE
THAT DAY.
AT DAWN OF EASTER SUNDAY, THE RESURRECTION MASS IS HELD.
AFTER THIS MASS, THE FAMILY COMES HOME TO EASTER BREAKFAST
COMPOSED OF THE EASTER BASKET FOOD. AS A CUSTOMARY PRACTICE, THE
MEAL IS STARTED BY THE OLDEST MEMBER, WHO TAKES A BLESSED EGG, WHICH
HAS BEEN QUARTERED, AND SHARES IT WITH EACH MEMBER, WISHING HIM
HAPPINESS AND HEALTH. THE EGG IS REPRESENTATIVE OF LIFE. THEN
EVERYONE SITS DOWN TO EAT THE EASTER MEAL.
MY GRANDMOTHER REMEMBERS THIS FROM PRACTICE TO THIS DAY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DEARBORN

Keyword(s): FAMILY UNITY ; FOOD CUSTOM ; SWIECZONKA ; WATER

Subject headings: 663 Holy Thursday
663 Good Friday
663 Holy Saturday
Favorites
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter eggs
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30

Date learned: 10-27-1967

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GOOD FRIDAY BELIEF

IT IS A SIN TO USE A NEEDLE ON GOOD FRIDAY, OR TO USE ANY KIND OF
ANIMAL FATS ON GOOD FRIDAY.

Submitter comment: SHE LEARNED THESE BELIEFS FROM HER MOTHER AS A CHILD, BUT DOES NOT
BELIEVE IN THEM OR PRACTICE THEM NOW. (1920'S)

Where learned: PENNSYLVANIA ; PITTSBURGH

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; IRON ; SEWING ; WORK TABOO

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday

Date learned: 10-02-1971

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GOOD FRIDAY BREAD

IF YOU BAKE BREAD ON GOOD FRIDAY, IT WOULD BE THE BEST, BECAUSE
ORIGINALLY ON THE FIRST GOOD FRIDAY, A WOMAN WAS MAKING BREAD
AND OUR LORD PASSED WITH THE CRUCIFIX. WITH A TOWEL TO COVER THE
BREAD, SHE WIPED CHRIST'S FACE. FROM THEN ON, AND ( SIC ) BREAD MADE
ON GOOD FRIDAY WOULD BE THE BEST EVER.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; ROSEVILLE

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday
Favorites
PROSE NARRATIVE -- Religious hero
PROSE NARRATIVE -- Product or activity of man or animal

Date learned: 02-17-1970

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BLACK FRIDAY

GOOD FRIDAY WAS KNOWN AS BLACK FRIDAY IN IRELAND. ON THIS DAY, THE
FAMILY HAD A GREAT FEAST. NO MILK (OR MILK PRODUCTS) OR SUGAR COULD
BE EATEN, SO FOR THIS ONE DAY A YEAR THE PEOPLE BOUGHT SPECIAL STORE-
BREAD, JAM, AND BLACK TEA. THEY USUALLY ATE THREE TIMES AS MUCH ON
BLACK FRIDAY THAN THEY DID DURING THE REST OF THE YEAR.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday

Date learned: 11-18-1970

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GOOD FRIDAY SUPPER

ON GOOD FRIDAY, ONE CAN ONLY HAVE ONE MEAL. HE SHOULD SPEND THE REST
OF HIS DAY CONTEMPLATING THE SERIOUS OCCASION WHICH THE DATE
REPRESENTS. THE MEAL SHOULD CONSIST OF COOKED NOODLES, PRUNES, AND
SMALL SQUARES OF BREAD. THIS AGAIN SHOULD REPRESENT THE SEVERITY
OF CHRIST'S DEATH AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO MANKIND.

Submitter comment: THIS IS A TRADITIONAL CUSTOM OF THE PEOPLE OF WESTPHALIA. MR.
STOERKEL IS FROM THIS AREA OF GERMANY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; Mount Clemens

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; SELF-SACRIFICE--FASTING ; SYMBOL

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday

Date learned: 00001940S LATE

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GOOD FRIDAY CUSTOM

ALWAYS EAT HOT CROSS BUNS ON GOOD FRIDAY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; WARREN

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday

Date learned: 03-24-1970

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A RELIGIOUS TRADITION

"ON GOOD FRIDAY AT HOME WE WERE ALLOWED TO EAT ONLY
APPLES AND SODA CRACKERS FROM MIDNIGHT HOLY THURSDAY TO MIDNIGHT
GOOD FRIDAY, AND WE COULD ONLY DRINK WATER."

Submitter comment: LEARNED AS A CHILD AT HOME.

Where learned: HOME ; TOLD IN

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; SELF-SACRIFICE--FASTING

Subject headings: 663 Holy Thursday
663 Good Friday

Date learned: 03-10-1967

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HOLY WEEK CUSTOMS ( GOOD FRIDAY )

ON GOOD FRIDAY, NO DAIRY PRODUCTS OR PRODUCTS MADE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS,
NO MEAT, AND NO ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES MAY BE CONSUMED.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; BLOOMFIELD HILLS

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; SELF-SACRIFICE--FASTING

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday

Date learned: DATE NOT RECORDED BY COLLECTOR

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EASTER CUSTOM

AMONG THIS MAN'S FAMILY, IT WAS CUSTOMARY TO HAVE THE CHILDREN PUT A
CARROT ON THE FRONT PORCH ON THE EVENING OF HOLY SATURDAY (THE DAY
BEFORE EASTER) SO THAT THE EASTER BUNNY WOULD HAVE SOMETHING TO EAT
WHEN HE CAME TO VISIT THE HOUSE.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: 663 Holy Saturday
Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Bunny
BELIEF -- Mammal

Date learned: 10-16-1971

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HOLY SATURDAY

IS TO HAVE THORNS BLESSED WHICH ARE PUT ON THEIR CHIMNEYS IN ORDER

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; RENO HALL ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; SWIECZONKA

Subject headings: 663 Holy Saturday
Favorites
BELIEF -- Weather sign or control
BELIEF -- Lightning Thunder
BELIEF -- Prayer

Date learned: 10-03-1968

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