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( HOLY WEEK CUSTOMS )

SOME OF THE OLD WORLD CUSTOMS THAT ARE CELEBRATED BY
POLISH-AMERICANS, AND ARE A BIG PART OF OUR HERITAGE STEM FROM
OUR CATHOLIC FAITH. THE BIGGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT IS EASTER.
AT THE CONCLUSION OF HOLY THURSDAY SERVICES OUR ALTAR IS
STRIPPED OF ITS VESTMENTS AND IS LEFT BARE. THE TABERNACLE
IS LEFT OPEN AND THE SACREMENT REMOVED. AT THE SIDE ALTAR THE
SEPULCHRE IS PREPARED. AT 3:00 ON GOOD FRIDAY THE FIGURE OF
CHRIST WILL BE LYING IN THE TOMB. ON GOOD FRIDAY ( , )
BEGINNING AT 12:00 NOON ( , ) THE CHURCH IS FILLED TO CAPACITY
WITH WORSHIPPERS COMMENORATING ( COMMEMORATING ) CHRIST'S
CRUCIFIXION. THE CROSS IS CARRIED THROUGH THE AISLES COVERING
CHRIST'S FOOTSTEPS ON THE WAY TO CALVARY. AT 3:00, THE PRIEST
LEADS THE PROCESSION TO THE SEPULCHRE AND THE FIGURE OF CHRIST IS
UNCOVERED.
THE MORNING OF HOLY SATURDAY FINDS THE PEOPLE COMING TO THE CHURCH
TO RECEIVE HOLY WATER AND THORNS. IN POLISH HOMES YOU WILL FIND
A RECEPTACLE FOR HOLY WATER AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE BEDROOMS FROM
WHICH THE MOTHER BLESSES HER FAMILY WHILE THEY ARE ASLEEP AT
NIGHT. A VISIT IS PAID TO THE SEPULCHRE WHICH IS GUARDED BY
SOLDIERS. THE PARISHIONERS BRING EASTER LILIES TO ADORN CHRIST'S
TOMB. AT 1:00 WE BRING FOOD BASKETS TO THE CHURCH TO BE BLESSED,
WHICH WILL BE EATEN FOR BREAKFAST ON EASTER. THE FOOD CONSISTS OF
POLISH SAUSAGE (KIELBASA) ( , ) BUTTER SHAPED IN THE FORM OF A
LAMB WITH A RED RIBBON AROUND ITS NECK, SIGNIFYING CHRIST,
THE SLAIN LAMB. A SWEET BREAD MADE OF EGG AND SWEET RAISINS IS
BRAIDED INTO A LOAF, HORSERADISH AND COLORED EASTER ( EGGS ) ARE
ALSO IN THE BASKET.
EASTER MORNING AT 5:00 A.M. THE SUNRISE SERVICES BEGIN.
CHILDREN DRESSED IN WHITE ( , ) WEARING BLUE CAPES ( , ) COME IN
PROCESSION CARRYING FLOWERS. THEY ARE MET AT THE ALTAR BY THE
PRIEST AND WITH A TRUMPET FANFARE PROCEED TO THE TOMB. THERE
THEY FIND THE FIGURE OF CHRIST HAS BEEN REMOVED AND WHERE HE LAID
FLOWERS EN-MASSE. ARTIFICIAL SUNRAYS PROFUSE FROM THE TOMB, AND
THE SOLDIERS ARE GONE. CHRIST IS RISEN.
IN THE OLD COUNTRY EASTER MONDAY FINDS THE BOYS CHASING THEIR
GIRLS WITH LONG SWITCHES TO SWITCH THEIR LEGS. THEY IN TURN,
ARE CHASING THE BOYS WITH BUCKETS OF WATER.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAINT CLAIR SHORES

Keyword(s): DYNGUS DAY ; FOOD CUSTOM ; MUSIC ; RITUAL WHIPPING ; SWIECZONKA ; SYMBOL ; WATER

Subject headings: 663 Holy Thursday
663 Good Friday
663 Holy Saturday
Favorites
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter eggs
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Monday Dyngus
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30

Date learned: 11-10-1971

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TRADITIONAL POLISH CELEBRATION OF HOLY WEEK AND EASTER

ON HOLY THURSDAY THE BISHOPS AND PRIESTS WASH THE FEET OF 12
POOR PEOPLE IN MEMORY OF THE LAST SUPPER.
ON GOOD FRIDAY THERE IS A SPECIAL MASS WITH PRAYERS FOR ALL.
THE HOLY SACRAMENT IS PUT INTO A DARK CELL, AS CHRIST WAS, TO BE
ADORED CONSTANTLY. THERE IS A SPECIAL TOMB PUT UP AT A SIDE ALTAR
WHICH IS DECORATED WITH FLOWERS AND OFTEN DOVES. HERE THE PEOPLE
COME TO VISIT AND PRAY BOTH FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.
ON HOLY SATURDAY WATER AND THORNS ARE BLESSED IN THE MORNING AT
CHURCH. IN THE AFTERNOON, A BASKET OF FOOD IS TAKEN TO THE CHURCH TO
BE BLESSED. THE BASKET TRADITIONALLY CONTAINS BREAD, SALT, PEPPER,
EASTER EGGS (BOILED), KIELBASA (SAUSAGE), AND BUTTER IN THE FORM OF
A LAMB. ALSO, IT IS CUSTOMARY TO VISIT AS MANY CHURCHES AS POSSIBLE
THAT DAY.
AT DAWN OF EASTER SUNDAY, THE RESURRECTION MASS IS HELD.
AFTER THIS MASS, THE FAMILY COMES HOME TO EASTER BREAKFAST
COMPOSED OF THE EASTER BASKET FOOD. AS A CUSTOMARY PRACTICE, THE
MEAL IS STARTED BY THE OLDEST MEMBER, WHO TAKES A BLESSED EGG, WHICH
HAS BEEN QUARTERED, AND SHARES IT WITH EACH MEMBER, WISHING HIM
HAPPINESS AND HEALTH. THE EGG IS REPRESENTATIVE OF LIFE. THEN
EVERYONE SITS DOWN TO EAT THE EASTER MEAL.
MY GRANDMOTHER REMEMBERS THIS FROM PRACTICE TO THIS DAY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DEARBORN

Keyword(s): FAMILY UNITY ; FOOD CUSTOM ; SWIECZONKA ; WATER

Subject headings: 663 Holy Thursday
663 Good Friday
663 Holy Saturday
Favorites
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter eggs
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30

Date learned: 10-27-1967

View just this record

HOLY WEEK

ON HOLY THURSDAY AND GOOD FRIDAY PEOPLE HAVE ELABORATE
PROCESSIONS THROUGH THE STREETS OF MALTA VISITING SEVEN DIFFERENT
CHURCHES. CHILDREN CARRY SYMBOLS OF THE PASSION--E.G. ( , ) THE
NAILS, ROBE, DICE.

Data entry tech comment: 100% OF THE POPULATION OF MALTA IS ROMAN CATHOLIC.
THIS IS DONE TO SYMBOLIZE THE SEVEN LAST WORDS OF CHRIST.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE

Subject headings: 663 Holy Thursday
663 Good Friday
Favorites
Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Accessories
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30
BELIEF -- Number

Date learned: 03-08-1970

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GOOD FRIDAY

ON GOOD FRIDAY THE CHURCH IS PACKED WITH PEOPLE. SOME PEOPLE IN THE
PHILIPPINES GO UP TO THE ALTAR ON THEIR KNEES WHILE OTHERS MAY
(BE) DRESSED WITH A KIND OF MASK WHICH ENACTS THE SUFFERINGS OF
CHRIST. THE STATIONS OF THE CROSS ARE DONE BY THE PEOPLE IN
PROCESSION OUTSIDE.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday
Favorites
Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Accessories
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
ART CRAFT ARCHITECTURE -- Mask
SPEECH -- Gesture

Date learned: 11-00-1970

View just this record

ON GOOD FRIDAY A TABLE IS SET UP IN THE EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH
AND DECORATED WITH FLOWERS. THE TABLE REPRESENTS THE GRAVE OF
CHRIST. DURING THE EVENING SERVICES IT IS DISASSEMBLED AND CARRIED
BY CHURCH ELDERS IN A PROCESSION IN WHICH ALL OF THE MEMBERS
JOIN. EVERYONE CARRIES A LIGHTED CANDLE AND MARCHES AROUND THE
CHURCH THREE TIMES ILLUSTRATING THE THEME, "CHRIST HAS DIED, CHRIST
HAS RISEN, CHRIST WILL COME AGAIN". AT THE RESURRECTION MASS
THE SAME PROCEDURE IS REPEATED.

Submitter comment: INFORMANT SAID THAT DESPITE THE REVISIONS IN THE ORTHODOX MASS, THIS
EASTER CUSTOM HAS BEEN PRESERVED AND IS STILL WIDELY PRACTICED.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday
BELIEF -- Number

Date learned: 10-20-1971

View just this record

CUSTOM HOLY SATURDAY

THE FAMILIES TAKE A BASKET OF FOOD TO CHURCH IN THE AFTERNOON AND
HAVE IT BLESSED BY THE PRIEST. THIS BASKET ONCE CONTAINED ONLY SMALL
LOAVES OF BREAD, BUT NOW CONTAINS BREAD, BUTTER, SALT, SAUSAGE, AND
COLORED EGGS. THIS IS THE FIRST FOOD EATEN WHEN THE FAMILY RETURNS
FROM MASS ON EASTER SUNDAY.
THIS IS A REMEMBRANCE OF THE MIRACLE OF THE LOAVES AND THE FISHES; IT
IS ALSO A REQUEST THAT GOD WILL MAKE THE YEAR PLENTIFUL.

Where learned: HOME

Keyword(s): FOOD CUSTOM ; SWIECZONKA

Subject headings: 663 Holy Saturday
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter eggs
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday
BELIEF -- Prayer
BELIEF -- Number

Date learned: 11-27-1967

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SARDINIAN EASTER

ON EASTER IN SARDINIA, AT 8 A.M., TWO PROCESSIONS BEGIN. THE
FIRST WITH HALF OF THE PEOPLE FROM THE TOWN,
PROCESS(ES) WITH THE STATUE OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY
WHICH IS DRESSED IN BLACK. THE SECOND GROUP COMES FROM THE
CEMETERY WITH A STATUE OF CHRIST. THE GROUPS MEET IN THE TOWN
SQUARE WHERE THE MOURNING GARB IS REMOVED FROM THE VIRGIN. BOTH
PROCESSIONS THEN PROCEED TOGETHER TO THE CHURCH WHERE MASS IS
CELEBRATED. DURING THE CONSECRATION, FIREWORKS ARE SET OFF TO
SYMBOLIZE JOY.

Data entry tech comment: COMMAS ADDED BY THE KEYPUNCHER.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; MARYGROVE COLLEGE ; DETROIT

Subject headings: Favorites
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Typical Elements of a Festive Pattern
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday

Date learned: 00001968 FALL

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CUSTOM

ON EASTER MORNING, APPROXIMATELY 5:00 A.M., THE PRIEST APPROCHES
( APPROACHES ) THE FRONT DOOR OF THE CHURCH AND KNOCKS 3 TIMES
WITH A CRUCIFIX.

Submitter comment: (THIS IS A SIGN THAT CHRIST HAS RISEN WHEN THE DOOR IS OPENED LIKE
THE TOMB WAS OPENED.)

Where learned: HOME

Keyword(s): SYMBOLIC ACTION

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday

Date learned: 10-00-1968

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UKRANIAN ( UKRAINIAN ) EASTER

ON EASTER SUNDAY, NO ONE WOULD ENTER THE CHURCH UNTIL THE CLERGYMAN
WOULD TAP THE DOOR OPEN WITH A CROSS, AS THEY BELIEVED THAT ALL THE
SOULS OF THEIR DECEASED FAMILIES AND FRIENDS WERE IN THE CHURCH
WITH CHRIST.

Submitter comment: INFORMANT TRAVELLED

Where learned: OFFICE

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday
BELIEF -- Death Funeral Burial

Date learned: 10-03-1967

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EASTER CELEBRATION

AT 4:00 A.M. ( , ) A BAND MARCHES AROUND THE TOWN AND WAKES
EVERYBODY UP, THEN EVERYONE GETS DRESSES ( DRESSED ) UP IN SUNDAY
CLOTHES, AND MEETS IN THE PLAZA. THERE IS A HIGH TOWER AND SOMEBODY
SINGS AND A LITTLE GIRL TIED TO A ROPE AND DRESSED AS AN ANGEL IS
EASED DOWN THE TOWER. ON THE GROUND IS A STATUE OF THE BLESSED
VIRGIN MARY WITH A BLACK VEIL SYMBOLIZING MOURNING, AND THE LITTLE
GIRL CHANGES IT TO WHITE TO SHOW THAT HER MOURNING IS OVER. THEN
EVERYBODY GOES TO CHURCH.

Where learned: LOCATION NOT RECORDED BY COLLECTOR

Keyword(s): COLOR

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday

Date learned: 12-04-1965

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EASTER

THE RESSURECTION ( RESURRECTION ) IS TOLD BY THE PEOPLE ON EASTER
BY DEPICTING OR ACTING IT OUT. AT FOUR O'CLOCK IN THE MORNING
THE PEOPLE COME TO CHURCH. THE MEN ARE ON ONE SIDE AND THE WOMEN
ARE ON THE OTHER SIDE. A STATUE OF CHRIST IS CARRIED AROUND THE
CHURCH AND OUTSIDE WHERE THE MEN FOLLOW IN PROCESSION. THE
WOMEN PROCESS AROUND ANOTHER WAY UNTIL THE MEN AND WOMEN COME TO A
POINT WHERE THEY MEET. THIS IS TO REPRESENT CHRIST MEETING MARY.
THE CHILDREN ARE AT THE SPOT WHERE THE MEN AND WOMEN WERE TO MEET
ALL DRESSED UP AS THE ANGELS. THIS CUSTOM CAME FROM THE SPANISH.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): SYMBOL

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Easter Sunday

Date learned: 11-00-1970

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THE EVE OF JUNE 23RD

IN IRELAND, ON THE EVE OF JUNE 23RD, WHICH IS ST. JOHN THE
BAPTIST'S FEAST DAY, A GREAT CELEBRATION TAKES PLACE. IN THIS
CELEBRATION A CART OR LARGE WAGON IS SURROUNDED BY HAY, WHICH IS
SET ON FIRE. THE CART REPRESENTS FAITH, AND THE FIRE AROUND THE
CART REPRESENTS THE CATHOLIC CHURCH, WHICH PROTECTS ONE'S FAITH.
AFTER THE CEREMONY A PARTY TAKES PLACE.

Submitter comment: THIS WAS TOLD TO THE INFORMANT BY A NUN, WHO HAD LIVED MOST
OF HER LIFE IN IRELAND.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- June 23

Date learned: 04-05-1970

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CAROLING

AMONG THE UKRAINIANS, ON CHRISTMAS DAY GROUPS OF CAROLERS VISIT THE
UKRAINIAN HOMES SINGING ANCIENT CAROLS AND BRINGING GREETINGS.
THEY CARRY WITH THEM A LARGE STAR OF BETHLEHEM, MADE OF COLORFUL
PAPER AND WOOD, LIT WITH A CANDLE (OR NOW AN ELECTIC LIGHT).
OR THE CAROLERS WILL CARRY A MINIATURE MANGER ("WERTEP") WITH
HAND CARVED WOODEN FIGURES. ANOTHER CUSTOM WHICH HAS ALMOST
PASSED AWAY IS THAT OF PRESENTING LITTLE SKITS WITH MEMBERS
OF THE GROUP DRESSED IN APPROPRIATE COSTUMES: AN ANGEL,
THREE KINGS, SHEPHERDS, AND A COMICAL CHARACTER FOR A TOUCH OF
HUMOUR.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; WARREN

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 25 Christmas Also see F642, below.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Lights and candles
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Songs, caroling

Date learned: 10-00-1970

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TOM THUMB WEDDING

THE TOM THUMB WEDDING IS A CUSTOM IN NEW ORLEANS. A MINIATURE
WEDDING IS HELD WHERE ONLY CHILDREN ARE THE PARTICIPANTS. THE
LITTLE BOY WHO PORTRAYS THE GROOM DRESSES LIKE THE GROOM. A
LITTLE GIRL DRESSES LIKE THE BRIDE. WEDDING ATTENDANTS ARE
INCLUDED. THE WHOLE RITUAL OF GETTING MARRIED IS ACTED OUT.

Submitter comment: THIS WEDDING IS HELD TO RAISE MONEY FOR VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS.
THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE WEDDING SELL TICKETS TO RAISE MONEY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SOUTHFIELD

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
DRAMA -- Secular
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Street Trip Relations between relatives, friends, host and guest Social class Rank
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Marriage

Date learned: 01-00-1979

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RELIGIOUS

BEFORE CHRISTMAS, SIX BOYS CARRY THE MANGER. THREE OF THEM DRESS UP
AS THE THREE KINGS. ONE CARRIES A LIGHTED STAR AND TWO CARRY
STATUES OF MARY AND JOSEPH. THEY SING CAROLS AND ARE REWARDED WITH
SWEETS AND APPLES.

Submitter comment: IN POLAND, DURING THE CHRISTMAS SEASON, THE BOYS MARCH FROM
HOUSE TO HOUSE.

Where learned: DETROIT

Subject headings: 686 Thirds / Thrice / Three / Triple
PROSE NARRATIVE -- B370
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas Season See F645.2 for Advent Season.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Songs, caroling

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WHEN I WAS IN GRADE SCHOOL THE NUNS MADE US DRESS UP AS OUR PATRON
SAINT ON HALLOWEEN.

Submitter comment: GRADE SCHOOL ST. MICHAEL'S OF LIVONIA

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; LIVONIA

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- October 31 Halloween
BELIEF -- Religious hero

Date learned: GRADE SCHOOL

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EVENTS ON CHRISTMAS EVE

FROM EVENING UNTIL MIDNIGHT, BOYS WALK FROM VILLAGE TO VILLAGE WITH
AN ILLUMINATED STAR AND A KING HEROD CHARACTER, TO SING CAROLS.
THIS IS DONE TO RECEIVE GIFTS. IN SOME DISTRICTS THE BOYS CARRY
PUPPET SHOWS CALLED SZOPKI. THESE ARE BUILT LIKE A LITTLE HOUSE
WITH TWO TOWERS, OPEN IN THE FRONT WHERE A SMALL CRIB IS SET AND
BEFORE WHICH MARIONETTES SING THEIR DIALOGUES.

Submitter comment: THE DRAMATIZATION AND PUPPET SHOWS WERE EAGERLY AWAITED BY THE
CHILREN OF POLAND AS WELL AS THE ADULTS.

Where learned: POLAND ; WARSAW ; MIELIEC

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Religious
DRAMA -- Religious
DRAMA -- Puppet
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve

Date learned: 00-00-1940

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GOOD FRIDAY

A RITUAL PERFORMED AT MY CHURCH, ALL SAINTS, IS THE ACTING
OUT OF THE STATIONS OF THE CROSS ON GOOD FRIDAY. THIS USUALLY
INCLUDES OUR PARISH PRIEST ACTING AS CHRIST AND THE
CONGREGATION PLAYING THE ACCOMPANYING PARTS.
THROUGHOUT THE CEREMONY, THE PRIEST WEARS A SIMPLE WHITE
PATTERNLESS VESTMENT. THIS SYMBOLIZES,
FOR OUR CELEBRATION, THE PURITY OF CHRIST,
THE SIMPLICITY OF HIS MESSAGE, AND THE UNIQUE
CONDITIONS OF THE CHURCH ON GOOD FRIDAY,
NAMELY A BARE ALTAR, EMPTY TABERNACLE, AND
A COVERED CRUCIFIX STATUE.

Submitter comment: THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THIS CEREMONY IS TO GET A FEEL FOR
THE MOOD AND SETTING OF THE FINAL DAYS OF CHRIST ON EARTH. THIS
EXPLAINS THE ABSENCE OR CONCEALMENT OF POST-RESURRECTION
OBJECTS IN CHURCH.

Where learned: DETROIT

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday
DRAMA -- Religious

Date learned: 04-00-1975

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EVERY APRIL 24TH, WE CELEBRATE SAINT GEORGE'S DAY IN GREECE.
SAINT GEORGE IS ONE OF THE PATRON SAINTS OF GREECE. ON THIS
DAY, WE CELEBRATE HIS DESTROYING THE DRAGON. SAINT GEORGE
WAS ORIGINALLY AN ARCHANGEL, THIS IS ONE OF GOD'S CHIEF ANGELS.
THE DRAGON REPRESENTS THE EVILNESS OF SATAN; SO TO COMMEMORATE
THIS EVENT, THE OLDEST MALE CHILD OF EACH TOWN OR VILLAGE
IS DRESSED IN LIGHT CHAIN MAIL, AND ARMED WITH A FAKE SWORD.
AN ADULT FROM THE VILLAGE, NORMALLY THE MAYOR, IS DRESSED AS
THE DRAGON. THEY RE-ENACT THE FIGHT THAT OCCURRED, WITH SAINT
GEORGE WINNING. THIS PERFORMANCE IS FOLLOWED BY A HUGE
FEAST, WHICH THE WOMEN OF THE VILLAGE PREPARE.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; Sterling Heights ; WHERE I LEARNED THIS

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
DRAMA -- Secular
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- April 24

Date learned: 00-00-1958

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AT CHRISTMAS TIME A MANGER SCENE IS SET UP. THE INFANT, HOWEVER, IS NOT
PLACED IN THE CRIB UNTIL CHRISTMAS MORNING AND THE THREE WISE MEN ARE NOT PLACED WITH THE SCENE UNTIL
"THREE KING'S DAY" (JANUARY 6).

Data entry tech comment:

Informant and collector are the same person.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Subject headings: DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- January 6 Twelfth Day Epiphany
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- F122
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Manger scenes

Date learned: 10-07-1972

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